Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2,3,4 Questions

Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2,3,4 Questions - Jada...

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Jada Joseph Mrs. Hess Anatomy and Physiology Due Date: September 28, 2015 Chapter Assessments 1. Chemistry is the branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes. 2. Matter is anything that has weight and takes up space. 3. All matter is composed of fundamental substances called elements . Elements are composed of tiny particles called atoms , which are the smallest complete units of elements. 4. The four most abundant elements in the human body are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. 5. An atom consists of a central portion, called the nucleus, and one or more electrons that constantly move around it. The nucleus contains one or more relatively large particles called protons. The nucleus also usually contains one or more neutrons, which are similar in size to protons. Electrons carry a negative charge, protons carry a positive charge, and neutrons are uncharged and thus electrically neutral. 6. Because the nucleus contains protons, it is always positively charged. However, the number of electrons outside the nucleus equals the number of protons. Therefore, a complete atom is electrically uncharged, or neutral. 7. The number of protons in the atoms of a particular element is called known as the element’s atomic number . The atomic weight of an atom of an element approximately equals the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus; electrons have very little weight. Atoms with the same atomic numbers but different atomic weights are called isotopes . 8. The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom determine its chemical behavior. Atoms whose outermost electron shells are filled, have stable structures and are chemically inactive, or inert. Atoms whose outermost electron shells are incompletely filled, tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in ways that empty or fill their outer shells. This enables them to achieve stable structures.
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