LEC3- Qing history - LEC3-­‐ Qing history Tuesday...

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Unformatted text preview: LEC3-­‐ Qing history Tuesday, January 26, 2 016 10:09 A M • Two interpretations of the Qing dynasty: ○ Controversy has to do with the present day politics in China • Manchus: ○ North Eastern loosely lined tribes of ppl -­‐ nomadic ○ Think EAS103, the tension between the ppl around China = can say it's sedentary agriculture vs those who are less amenable -­‐ wet rice agriculture or other types of sedentary agriculture ○ Sedentary ppl -­‐ use trade techniques -­‐ the division rule tactics ○ Complicated relationship over the ages ○ Another example of ppls -­‐ Mongols-­‐ take over so many countries-­‐ created one of the biggest empires in history ○ Being called the Manchus-­‐ is an indication of how they came together • Review of last week: ○ Looked at issue of East Asian economy -­‐ from the micro level -­‐ rice planted -­‐ seed bed ○ Intensity of agriculture-­‐ more produce ○ Thinking about reading response article ○ Macro perspective-­‐ formation of the global economy by the circulation of silver ○ Happens because of the changes at the micro level -­‐ changes at the macro level ○ We can make the argument that China is at the center ○ Because of the demand and the difference in the value of silver vs gold -­‐ over decades it ends up • Rise of the Qing: ○ Nurghaci-­‐ the strong leader that brings the tribes together-­‐ 1616 1621-­‐ Capture Shenyang-­‐ Ming city 1627-­‐ Invade Korea-­‐ twice actually 1635-­‐ Jurchens take on the name Manchu-­‐ the issue of the identity of the Manchus themselves 1636-­‐ "Great Qing"-­‐ think of the Mandate of Heaven -­‐ saying that they are the true holders of the Mandate 1644-­‐ Capture Beijing-­‐ end of Ming Dynasty -­‐ the rebellions, the corrupt government ○ Next 4 decades used to suppress remnants of Ming -­‐ 1684 suppress the last rebellion ○ Historians measuring tree rings -­‐ mini ice age -­‐ pushes pressure on 1636-­‐ "Great Qing"-­‐ think of the Mandate of Heaven -­‐ saying that they are the true holders of the Mandate 1644-­‐ Capture Beijing-­‐ end of Ming Dynasty -­‐ the rebellions, the corrupt government ○ Next 4 decades used to suppress remnants of Ming -­‐ 1684 suppress the last rebellion ○ Historians measuring tree rings -­‐ mini ice age -­‐ pushes pressure on nomadic ppl -­‐ one of the solutions= move south, believe it was the environmental issue that pushed the Manchus to move south • Qing dynasty: ○ 1644 established ○ 2% of the population was Manchu-­‐ how did they rule for so long ○ "The manchu rulers stayed in power only because they became as Chinese as their subjects • 2 interpretations: ○ Txtbk-­‐ important in understanding the development of the attitude of Americans toward China ○ Fairbank etc. -­‐ "Sinicizing" -­‐ term where lots of controversy comes from ○ Think of EAS103-­‐ barbarous culture can be more like other ppl ○ Txtbk -­‐ the idea that China is being multicultural and emphasizing that the Qing is an empire with many ppl and languages § Focus more on the diversity of the empire not the "Chineseness" of the empire § Shouldn't forget that the ruling elite are Manchus § By Kangxi's time , the Qing empire can't technically be called "China" because it's borders and territories go other • Version 1:Qing is a sinicized dynasty ○ Txbk might represent hw one group of ppl can represent this ○ The author is like hiding in the txtbk ○ How much the bk can very and change over time ○ Hisotry had canged since that last time 2nd successors raises problem fr0m. Or shows the means ○ Kangxi: § Come to power-­‐ the acquitstion to lear nwriting § As min dynasty come to gover and imploy chinese offi § They know the allergies benefits § The moral mixture come from § When the Manchus come in to the back, one way soc that the social ecop § Appleining towards the § Hard to conivnce the sul § "Use civilization to transform the beba § It's a discourse § Qing has the same steroetypes in Mongolia § Think of illuminati eplate-­‐ no ta llowed= modernly Appleining towards the Hard to conivnce the sul "Use civilization to transform the beba It's a discourse Qing has the same steroetypes in Mongolia Think of illuminati eplate-­‐ no ta llowed= modernly Kangxi Dicitonary -­‐ famours for its size -­‐ extremely extensive □ Single characters not compound-­‐ going through ancient stuff § 4 treasures: □ Compilation of all the books and the writing in the empire -­‐ think encyclopedic collection □ Usually spoken of as a cultural achievement □ Destroy anti Manchu writing -­‐ because of the early years □ Yangzhou-­‐ ppl refused to submit to the Manchus-­‐ entire town were killed-­‐ the accounts were suppressed □ Political project purpose-­‐ pr purpose -­‐ try to get ppl to collaborate with a new regime • Manchu Multiethnic empire: Interpretation2 ○ Korea plays an important role in the Sincinization thesis ○ Korea is regarded as a tributary state ○ The 2 countries that are always near the top of the list-­‐ Vietnam and Korea ○ Korea= important way of showing that this system is accepted and universalized ○ Emissary recognizes the emperor's holding of the mandate of heaven ○ Kowtou -­‐ touch the ground with your head 3 times -­‐ 9 times ritual -­‐ the acceptance of the cultural norms of that civilization's discourse • In the 2nd view-­‐ different way of how korea fits: ○ Remember the shoes? Style is Manchu § Color matching game-­‐ make the foot look smaller § Do that because in China the binding of feet has become a common practice but Manchu women don't bind feet ○ Eroticism of Bound feet? § It's a norm ○ Take one material object -­‐ cultural reasons or context ○ Can see that Manchu did not disappear -­‐ it reflects on a bigger issue-­‐ you have to come to terms to the Manchuists themselves ○ Manchu script: § All official documents were suppose to also be available in Manchu ○ Kangxi tries all of these things to push the importance of the heritage of manchu ○ Intermarriage between Manchu and chinese-­‐ no ○ Willow Palisade-­‐ made a boundary -­‐ prevented Chinese from moving in there § § § § § § § • • • • • • • • • ○ Kangxi tries all of these things to push the importance of the heritage of manchu ○ Intermarriage between Manchu and chinese-­‐ no ○ Willow Palisade-­‐ made a boundary -­‐ prevented Chinese from moving in there ○ Manchus had to live in separate neighbourhood-­‐ to prevent the separation ○ Hunting and archery become important in court ○ Talk about Qing dynasty as a conquest dynasty ○ E.g. Korea: § The invasions are emphasized instead of the understanding of China § Force Korea to become tributary to the Qing 1637-­‐ Second invasion -­‐ went all the way to capture the King § In the other view-­‐ it's the confucian civilization, the 2nd one is about brute force § Koreans -­‐ hate the Manchus but have to send the tributary § They're playing a double game § Korean kings always talked about there being an opportunity that would allow them to overthrow the Qing -­‐ § This idea that the Confucian classics -­‐ putting themselves at the center -­‐ believed until the 19th century § The double game allows for the 2 versions of Qing dynasty § Korea never forget that the Qing dynasty is manchu Most scholars would argue about the drawing of borders that the area of Qing was 1/3 big than Ming 1758-­‐1911-­‐ Exile of criminals Qing emperor has various ways of ruling certain areas of the empire -­‐ Governing tactic Emperor and Dali Lama -­‐ present as equals Qing used startegies in different parts of the empire to bring it togethe r Is the Qing dynasty a type of colonial empire?-­‐ Helia Leads to the arrival of the British and the opium wars. Qing dynasty -­‐ basically established what we think of today as China ...
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