Grammar_Rules_PreAP (1) - English I Pre-AP Grammar Rules...

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English I Pre-AP Grammar Rules Grammar Rule #1 Part A : Do not use a comma with a conjunction (and, but, or, yet, so) when you have a simple sentence (subj. + verb) with a compound verb (one subject doing two things). Examples : The boy ran and jumped . At the party Sally ran into the wall with her foot but stayed with her friends in the room. ** The following elements of a sentence cannot make it compound or complex: Prepositional phrase : in the house, on the phone, around the corner, beyond the border, among the people, to the store, between the lines, through the woods Direct object : Chester baked the cake . Manny threw the ball . Predicate nominative : Ms. Villarreal is my teacher . The man over there is a policeman . Predicate adjective : Ms. Villarreal is sympathetic . The man over there is handsome . Gerund phrase : A noun that ends in “-ing” Examples : Running through the park is great exercise. (subject) I enjoy running through the park . (direct object) My favorite hobby is running through the park . (predicate nom.) Infinitive phrase : “To” + a verb Examples : To fly was his dream. (subj.) The boat began to sink . (direct object) The person to ask is your teacher. (adj.)
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Part B : Always use a comma with a conjunction (and, but, or, yet, so) when there is a simple sentence on both sides. This is a compound sentence. Examples : The teacher entered the classroom with the tests, and the students cried in fear. You can go to the movies now, or you can go later. Rule #2 Avoid fragments. Examples : Thinking that the class would be over in a few minutes. (only a participial phrase) In the back of the car with an ice cream in her hand. (only 4 prepositional phrases) After the team lost the game. (only an adverb clause) Grammar Rule #3 Part A: Adverb clauses with subordinating conjunctions (AAAWWUUBBIS) must be set off with a comma when they BEGIN a complex sentence.
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