Midterm 2 notes - Lecture 6 Feeding and Digestion(Chapter 8...

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Lecture 6: Feeding and Digestion (Chapter 8 and 9) Chapter 8: Feeding Why it matters? - Most fish eaten by North Americans (NA) are piscivores (fish that eat other fish) Example would be cod, tuna, salmon and Pollock o Their prey feed on zooplankton, mostly crustaceans (copepods), which would feed on phytoplankton This produces a food pyramid (pg. 134) The phytoplankton are referred as the producers (1 st trophic level), the animals that eat the phytoplankton are the herbivores (2 nd trophic level), the carnivores would become the predators (3 rd trophic level) and any other animal that is superior to the other carnivores would fit at a higher trophic level. 8.2: Suspension Feeding Systems Energy is precious resource, and natural selection has favors the evolutions of mechanisms the increase feeding efficiency. The three broad categories for animal food: - Detritus o Food that is produced due to the decomposition of animals or plants (unicellular plants), it is the most abundant type of foodit has the least amount of challenges to attain this type of food o Occurs in soils, on the ground, suspended in water (oceans, lakes, rivers, ponds) - Plants o Abundant in both terrestrial and aquatic environments o The plants are mostly abundant in fresh and marine water. These types of plants are unicellular are most likely detritus. Also feeding on the unicells requires a mechanism since the particles are so small to get from the large volume of water o Since plant are low in protein and they are protected by self defense chemicals so it is hard to obtain - Other animals o They also live in both terrestrial and aquatic environment o They carry a lot more protein than a plant but they are harder to capture since they can hide and also present defense mechanisms. What are the feeding challenges for small animals? - Suspended food particles are very abundant in the aquatic environment while airborne food particles in terrestrial habitats are rare - Suspension feeders o Animals that feed on suspended food particles (feeding on debris, phytoplankton, zooplankton)
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o Most aquatic animals belong to this category since the suspended food is much more accessible in the water vs. on land, spiders are actually an exception Spiders are able to ingest their webs getting nourishment from the protein – rich pollen grains that get stuck to the webs o Two type of suspension feeders are active and passive feeder Active suspension feeders: expend energy to generate water past their feeding structures. Example is Acorn Barnacles Feed on the suspended food particles by extending their appendages (cirri) Use a sieving type of mechanism (fanning type of motion to obtain food particles). The appendages have to be adjusted according to the fluid flow.
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