Biology Midterm Study Guide

Biology Midterm Study Guide - Chapter 3 Biochemistry...

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Chapter 3 Biochemistry Section 1 Carbons have the ability to form large and complex molecules which results in diversity in life. All compounds broken into two categories: organic compounds and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds made mostly of carbon atoms and inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms. A carbon atom has four electrons in its outer shell and to be stable it has to have eight electrons. To get the other four electrons it forms a covalent bond with other carbon atoms to form straight chains, branches chains, or rings. Carbons particularly like to form covalent bonds with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. A single bond is formed when two atoms share one pair of electrons. Hydro carbons are only made with hydrogen carbons. These hydro carbons make up hydro skeletons. Isomers are molecules with the same number of atoms but have different structures. (Me and Tylisha are both made up of bones and muscles but we look different.) Most common elements found in living things are C arbon, O xygen, H ydrogen, and Nitrogen make up almost 90% of the mass of living things. Some other important elements are C alcium, I ron, and S odium. An atom is the smallest particle. An atom that has a positive or negative charge is an ion. Polar molecules have both a slightly positive and negative charge (ex. Water). Water is very important. Many important reactions take place in water. Many important reactions take place in the water of the cytoplasm and a lot of substances that are important to the body are transported in the water of the blood. 70-90% of a cell is water. Water has thermal properties which mean that its temperature is stable. To change water, hydrogen bonds absorb its energy. Water’s slightly positive and negative charge allows it to be a universal solvent which means that many different substances will dissolve in it. Water is also cohesive which means that water molecules stick together because hydrogen bonds link together water molecules. Life’s diversity comes from a great variety of molecules. An organic compound contains at least one carbon atom and organic compounds are found in living things. Some common exceptions are carbon dioxide, carbonates, and hydrogen carbonates. Organic compounds have clusters of atoms called functional groups. Functional groups influence the characteristics of molecules and the chemical reactions these molecules undergo. They have specific characteristic structures and functions. They are also attached to the backbone of macromolecules and show properties that are common to them. The four functional groups are hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, and amino. Carbon compounds are made up of simple molecules called monomers. Monomers can link and join together to form polymers. Large strands of polymers are called macromolecules.
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