Unformatted text preview: LEC4
Tuesday, February 2, 2 016 10:12 A M • Look at the way that authors are approaching gender not national profile
• Ways we think of women -‐ early 20th reform movements
Review of last lecture:
• Looking at the two different photos of the Kangxi • Idea of manchu identity-‐ debate how important was it • How does power work?
• Kangxi presented himself as a wise ruler-‐ confucian ruler • In other parts of the empire being a confucian ruler doesn't matter
• There are all sorts of political disturbances and debates about the relationships areas like Tibet should have to Beijing
• Think about Xin jiang: • Is the Qing a type of colonial empire ? • Picture
○ About the 3 important human relations ○ Story: husband has passed away but daughter in law is filial to mother in law still ○ Why two languages written? At this pt Choson dynasty is a confucian dynasty ○ Chinese is the language of scholarship and sophistication ○ Why? Because of the Confucian classics-‐ it's the truth ○ Hangul was considered to not be worthy for the attention of the scholars ○ Korea are rejected the idea of translating the Confucian texts into hangul
• Deuchler: p.142
○ What's the new social values? ○ There's been a dynastic change from Koryo to Choseon dynasty in terms of gender
○ In Koryo women had more say within the family was structured and could inherit ○ Why does it change though?
○ They identify gender as one of the key ways to change the social order ○ Makes it supppeerrr important
○ In the Koryo dynasty, the social order didn't follow the Confucian order ○ E.g. men could have multiple wives, wives could own the property and pass it down to whoever they want, wives could also divorce their husbands-‐ but these were considered to be morally corrupt by Confucian They identify gender as one of the key ways to change the social order Makes it supppeerrr important
In the Koryo dynasty, the social order didn't follow the Confucian order E.g. men could have multiple wives, wives could own the property and pass it down to whoever they want, wives could also divorce their husbands-‐ but these were considered to be morally corrupt by Confucian scholars
○ Passed laws that began to say : any elite man who wants to have a hope of government office: all the wives have to live in the same house, distinguish between main wife and secondary wives. ○ Descendant line is through the main wife. Women lost ability to own property and divorce husband
○ 1: Transition from Buddhist Koryo dynasty to Confucian Choson dynasty ○ 2: Dissemination and implementation of Confucian norms for gender and family over the course of several centuries
○ Remember the two views of Mancus Korea had:
○ By the time the Manchus come into Korea -‐ got ppl resisting the Manchu through Confucian norms in comparison to the early start of the century very little ppl did Ms Kim Hangs herself:
○ Two cases of protecting virtue : women
○ E.g. 1 16 yr old who just got married, husband next day gets killed
§ According to the ideals, she doesn't remarry and remembering her husband despite pressure to remarry ○ E.g. 2 1592 Hideyoshi tried to invade Korea but eventually failed. Women killing themselves to protect their virtue than give it to Japanese invaders
○ Why were there so many books like this published?
○ Women were remarrying-‐ ppl aren't behaving in the way that they should according to the ideals ○ There's a certain cultural capital to be gained by publishing these books
○ Shows these ideals aren't always being lived up to
○ Gender relations in early vs mid to late dynasties have changed because of the efforts
Gender vs sex:
○ Sex is the biological vs gender is what you identify as ○ The claim of being natural -‐not completely true-‐ it's socially created ○ If this is the way women should be naturally then how can you explain why it changes over time
○ Gender is trying to understand why it changes over time ○ Want to distinguish gender from sexuality ○ Sexuality -‐ who you go to bed with, gender-‐ who you go to bed as
○ Important to maintain distinction between categories
How did early Choseon rulers seek to create a confucian society on gender:
○ • • • • ○ Gender is trying to understand why it changes over time ○ Want to distinguish gender from sexuality ○ Sexuality -‐ who you go to bed with, gender-‐ who you go to bed as
○ Important to maintain distinction between categories
• How did early Choseon rulers seek to create a confucian society on gender:
○ E.g. the bleeding finger story
○ Trying to get women to change the way they behaved and conform to Confucian ideals
○ There's an issue though: as a current historian there's two options:
§ Look at it as a historical source that takes me back to the Choseon dynasty-‐ that's how women lived
§ Dechuler shows that it was a form underway. Most of the women didn’t behave this way and that the story is a form of propaganda § These types of documents are sometimes taken at face value -‐ "this is the traditional Korean women etc." • What would Dorothy Ko say about Deuchler?
○ Look at the sources and where are the women's point of view in the article?
○ Can't use that type of article to make any claims about the lives of women in the joseon dynasty
○ Gives critique on the idea of traditional woman ○ This isn't based on the actual women : it's based on two things: sources like Deuchler and 20th century reformist movement ○ "A women is virtuous only if she is untalented" -‐ Ko
○ Ko talks about meeting all these male professors in China -‐ telling her that she's wasting her time with this topic
○ The images and books that she found were against popular thinking
○ The women who read or wrote when they passed away, their family burned the works
○ Ko is talking a very specific group of women -‐ 17th century in Jiangnan area-‐ a rich area of China ○ The idea of inner chamber: intially it thought of to be like a jail, but the women take advantage of the space and use it to make literary culture creating a bond between mother and daugther
○ Ko wants to say that something productive comes out of this situation ○ In this particular region there is a flourishing book culture ○ Ko would say that footbinding is a reaction of 20th century, and use it as a representative of traditional women but it's too simplistic ○ Ko wants to show them as being active in the creation of their own gender roles
○ Would question Deuchler as to why women are being represented in a very passive manner in her article Walthall reaction to Ko's approach of gender: ○ Ko wants to show them as being active in the creation of their own gender roles
○ Would question Deuchler as to why women are being represented in a very passive manner in her article Walthall reaction to Ko's approach of gender:
• Ko focuses on the rich of the rich but Walthall focuses on the conditions of other women
• When everyone sleeps and lives in one room -‐ how can you even have inner chambers?
• These norms and ideals that are being promoted assume a certain level of economic wealth for it to be carried but it isn't possible for the majority of the population • Peasant women either did textiles or had to work • Economic status and social position trumps gender as being the main determinant of your lifestyles
• Trying to get away from the idea that women are oppressed equally • There's a variety of family and social lives for women -‐ there's a great flexibility in family structure
• Meiji period: era of reform : look at new family codes
○ Sent out ppl to analyze the typical Japanese family -‐ in order to find the norms to base family law -‐ but hard to say ○ Unified law about the way their family should-‐ huge change and disruptive -‐ because there weren't any actual standards • 20th century : trying to make feminist goals as national goals -‐ done by using ideas of traditional women as a metaphor of the nation e.g. footbinding -‐
becomes a reason why China has lagged behind ○ Women hold up half the sky ○ The idea of traditional women they're arguing is a 20th century production • Try to understand the limits that authors have in their articles • Region, gender class are variables that need to be considered...
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- Winter '15