PHIL2010Unit3Review - PHIL 2010 Unit 3 Review I The Early...

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PHIL 2010: Unit 3 Review I. The Early Modern Age (1400-1850) reveals a new emphasis on individual experience. Rationalists are those who prefer evidence of reason. Empiricists are those who prefer sensory experience. A. Rationalism 1. René Descartes A rationalist, Descartes decided to doubt everything until he found something he could not doubt - his own existence as a thinking being. Form this understanding he expressed his one understanding that he could not doubt - cogito, ergo sum… I think, therefore I exist. Drawing from his belief in God’s goodness, he concluded that God would not trick him into believing in a non-existent world, that the external world exists ,and sure knowledge of the world can be gained to the extent that it can be expressed mathematically or geometrically. This represents the beginning of the modern scientific mind. B. Empiricism 1. John Locke John Locke made a distinction between consideration of an object as it is perceived by us and the object alone without being perceived, that is, The Thing Perceived vs. The thing in Itself. This distinction becomes an ongoing concern in modern philosophy. 2. George Berkeley Berkeley believed that Perception was essential for Existence: “To be is to be perceived” To Berkeley, the unperceived world does not exist. 3. David Hume Hume rejected perceptions as a basis for reality. Therefore, to Hume the external world does not exist.
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