Group 7 Water and Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl)

Group 7 Water and Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl) - Group 7 Water...

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Group 7 Water and Electrolytes WATER A. Water Water is an essential nutrient all on its own, as the body requires it in amounts that exceed the body’s ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen. Water is also required for digestion, absorption, transportation, dissolving nutrients, elimination of waste products and thermoregulation. I. Structure Water is made up of hydrogen ions (H + ) linked to hydroxyl ions (OH - ) to form H 2 O. II. Water in the Body Water is the largest component of the human body, making up to 50 to 75% of body weight, depending on age and body fat content. Water content is highest in infants and children and declines as we age. Lean individuals have greater percentage of water than those who are obese because lean tissue contains about 73% of water, whereas adipose tissue is only 20% water. Body water is found in two body compartments: o Intracellular fluid compartment (inside cells) 2/3 of body water is found in the intracellular fluid compartments o Extracellular fluid compartment (outside cells) Divided into 2 additional compartments: interstitial fluid (fluid between cells) and intravascular fluid(fluid in the blood and lymph) III. Recommended Intake The relative mass of water decreases in both men and women with age. Human requirements for water are related to metabolic needs and are highly variable. They depend to some extent on individual metabolism. On average: Infants Age AI 0-6 month s 0.7 L/day (from breast milk or formula) 7-12 month s 0.8 L/day (from breast milk, formula, food, plain water and other beverages, including 0.6 L as fluids)
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Children and Adolescents Age AI Total water Fluids (Food and fluids) (Including plain water, milk and other drinks) All 1-3 yr 1.4 L/day 1.0 L/day (about 4 cups) 4-8 yr 1.6 L/day 1.2 L/day (about 5 cups) Boys 9-13 yr 2.2 L/day 1.6 L/day (about 6 cups) 14-18 yr 2.7 L/day 1.9 L/day (about 7-8 cups) Girls 9-13 yr 1.9 L/day 1.4 L/day (about 5-6 cups) 14-18 yr 2.2 L/day 1.6 L/day (about 6 cups) Adults Age AI Total water Fluids (Food and fluids) (Including plain water, milk and other drinks) Men 19-30 yr 3.4 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 10 cups) 31-50 yr 3.4 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 10 cups) 51-70 yr 3.4 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 10 cups) >70 yr 3.4 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 10 cups) Women 19-30 yr 2.8 L/day 2.1 L/day (about 8 cups) 31-50 2.8 L/day 2.1 L/day (about 8 cups)
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yr 51-70 yr 2.8 L/day 2.1 L/day (about 8 cups) >70 yr 2.8 L/day 2.1 L/day (about 8 cups) Pregnancy Age AI Total water Fluids (Food and fluids) (Including plain water, milk and other drinks) 14-18 yr 2.4 L/day 1.8 L/day (about 7 cups) 19-30 yr 3.1 L/day 2.3 L/day (about 9 cups) 31-50 yr 3.1 L/day 2.3 L/day (about 9 cups) Lactation Age AI Total water Fluids (Food and fluids) (Including plain water, milk and other drinks) 14-18 yr 2.9 L/day 2.3 L/day (about 7 cups) 19-30 yr 3.5 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 9 cups) 31-50 yr 3.5 L/day 2.6 L/day (about 9 cups) IV. Absorption, Transport, Storage A. Absorption - Solid foods contribute approximately 20% of total water intake or about 700-800 mL ( NNS 1995). The remainder of the dietary intake comes from free water
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