Bio_Chapter 7_Cellular Respiration

Bio_Chapter 7_Cellular Respiration - Chapter 7 Cellular...

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Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration Section 1: Glycolysis and Fermentation Harvesting Chemical Energy Cellular respiration is when cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. Autotrophs and heterotrophs go through cellular respiration to break down the organic compounds formed during photosynthesis and get energy. Some of the energy is then used to make ATP which cells use to carry out their jobs. Overview of Cellular Respiration Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to make CO 2 and water from organic compounds and oxygen. Divided into two stages: glycolysis and aerobic respiration. - Glycolysis: organic compounds are converted into three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid which makes a little bit of ATP and NADH. - Aerobic Respiration: if oxygen is present in the cell’s environment, pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a lot of ATP through a process called aerobic respiration. Anaerobic processes do not require oxygen. Pyruvic acid can enter other pathways if there is no oxygen in the cell’s environment. The combination of glycolysis and these anaerobic pathways is fermentation. Many of the reactions in cellular respiration are redox reactions: one reactant is oxidized (loses electrons) while another one is reduced (gains electrons). The equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (ATP) Glycolysis Glycolysis is a pathway where one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. All the reactions of glycolysis are catalyzed by certain enzymes and all reactions take place in the cytosol. The process: 1. Two phosphate groups attached to one molecule of glucose making a six-carbon molecule with two phosphate groups. ATP gives the glucose the phosphate groups and becomes ADP in the process. 2. The six-carbon molecules breaks into two three-carbon molecules called G3P. 3. The two G3P molecules are oxidized and receive a phosphate group. This produces a new three-carbon compound. The oxidation of the G3P molecules accompanies the reduction of two molecules of NAD + to NADH. NAD + is a molecule that accepts electrons during redox reactions. 4. The phosphate groups added in step 1 are taken away from the three-carbon molecules and they become pyruvic acid molecules. The phosphate groups are added to ADP to make ATP.
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