PSY_1_ThinkingRev - NOTE All course materials(class...

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Unformatted text preview: NOTE All course materials (class lectures and discussions, handouts, examinations, Web materials) and the intellectual content of the course itself are protected by United States Federal Copyright Law, and the California Civil Code. UC Policy 102.23 expressly prohibits students (and all other persons) from recording lectures or discussions and from distributing or selling lectures notes and all other course materials without the prior written permission of the Instructor (see http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100). http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100 Students are permitted to make notes solely for their own private educational use. Exceptions to accommodate students with disabilities may be granted with appropriate documentation. To be clear, in this class students are forbidden from completing study guides and selling them to any person or organization. This text has been approved by UC General Counsel. Thinking Cognition Metacognition Digital Computer vs. Brain Computer: Inorganic (Si, GaAs) Taught/programmed Fixed hardware Can’t repair itself- will short-circuit Tool- assigned a function to do and it does u; operates within limits Non-adaptive software- bad at adapting to non-preprogrammed situations Brain: Organic (C, O, N) Can teach itself Grows own circuits- grow new connections among neurons Repairs itself (somewhat)- can often reroute from certain pathways and repair certain levels of damage and restore some function Agent- we change our environments/ instruments of change, we don’t just respond as we’re told Adaptive software- we respond to unprecedented problems well Areas Where the Brain Takes Shortcuts Perception- Imagination Forming Concepts Making Decisions Automatization in Perception(PERCEPTION) -Automization in Perception (Necker Cube) -See the upside face as being okay despite upsidedown features because it saves time/brain power (Margaret Thatcher illusion) Top-Down Processing Experience Affects Perception Top down processing (THE CAT);we go out expecting to see certain things; we turn something that could be CAT (CHT) into what is comprehensible/recognizable -once you see it you cant unsee it; using your cognition to dig out a stimulus/ making something appear that didn’t appear before (seeing two parallelograms in the Star of David/ vase or two faces) Biederman suggests we have a vocabulary of shapes (geons) that serve as the basic building blocks of objects we recognize; we recognize objects by first recognizing their component geons/their connections to one another A lot of this is cultural- we get exposed to a lot of shapes when we are brought up Impossible Figures Geon theory would explain how we see impossible figures; we try decomposing it down into seeing the shapes (geons) and it causes problems; we cant break it down M. C. Escher’s Use of Impossible Figures M. C. Escher’s Use of Impossible Figures M. C. Escher’s Use of Impossible Figures Stroop Effect The interference between automatized (habitual) and deliberate ways of thinking. Hits a habit against an instruction: I would like you to do this but it goes against a long practiced pattern 4 4 – say how many numbers are in row but youre taught to say the number you see so u say wrong # (number ur saying is conflicting w what you see/are trained to say when u see it) 2222 Color stroop effect: green say color (conflict between saying what u read vs the color of the word) ASYMMETRIES Popout: One stimulus pops out most amongst a field of others A pic of a broken circle amidst a bunch of closed circles the broken circle has superior popout (we function like imperfection detectors). Tilty line among straight lines popout more. Mental Shortcuts (IMAGINATION) Mental Imagery: Depictive v Propositional? Depictive: Map of Island: asked to be in one place then another, scan across image Longer distance, longer it took people to press key (when they arrive at destination) We actually imagine ourselves walking on island/ act as though we are navigating Diff cube shapes: Mental Rotation Experiment -ask if two shapes are same; people make judgments by imaging one of the forms rotating until the position matches other form How much testosterone you were exposed to in utero determines how good you are at this experiment (men tend to do better at this) subject to androgenization in utero Propositional: Are our Concepts? (FORMING CONCEPTS) Definitional v Prototypic Definitional: theories don’t always work, a dog is still 100% dog even though it may only have 50% of the features that describe a dog (having fur, 4 legs, barking) -semantic definition Prototypic: you have a prototype of what’s 100% dog to you- usually what u grow up seeing etc (in US a lab is 100% dog to Americans) Through experience and familiarity, you acquire an ideal/most typical version of what chairs or dogs are Compare and imagine to their mental prototype to the category dog (quicker to identify a german shepherd as dog (most OG lookin dog) vs dachshund/Chihuahua -Extends to typicality of other things such as fruit, birds, etc (apple is most fruity, Robin most birdy) Making Decisions Availability heuristic: our basing our decision on the most easily recalled alternatives o Easier to think of words that begin w R so we think that there are more words in the English language that begin w R vs. those with R as the first letter o Who thinks Smith and Johnson are the most common last names? Most of us grew up in largely white areas with Anglo-Saxon names so we assume its Smith or Johnson. However, Li is actually the most common. o We come from our own limited database to arrive at an answer o Gun violence reported to be on the rise: but 2013 and 2014 50 yr gun violence lows o Most overestimated cause of deaths according to people are accidents etc In reality its heart disease, and there were more federal expenditures to combat it People’s worries about diseases affect how we spend money Representativeness heuristic: when only a few instances are taken to represent the entire category o Negative correlation between gun violence and amount of guns you take an example that might be an anecdote and apply it to everything; that’s what you go by parents say they’ll give you a new car before college; you are about to buy a Honda but your friend tells you “My friend bought a Honda and did all the research you did and her Honda blew up in her driveway.” You then don’t buy from Honda and you base your decision off the one incident that happened to a friend of a friend you assume it to be true of Honda’s overall Ex. Diet advertised on Oprah panel of 10 people that attest to it/ they are representative of the diet’s effectiveness although Oprah hasn’t shown you the probable thousands that did not benefit from the diet/ experienced bad effects In Hollywood they always hire a stereotypically effeminate/recognizable “gay” versus someone that is actually gay but doesn’t play gay as well Framing bias: when the wording of a problem leads us to a decision o “Spinning” facts in order to change people’s attitudes about those facts same facts can be spun to be biased all depending on the contexts which the facts are provided Asian disease problem; by changing the phrasing , we reverse the pattern of subjects’ preferences and change their choices Deaths in United States (Year 2003) Heart disease Cancer Stroke Pulmonary disease Hospital Infections 685,000 557,000 158,000 126,000 80,000 Accidents Traffic fatalities Suicide Falls 106,000 44,000 31,000 17,000 AIDS Mad Cow Disease Anthrax 14,000 ~1 0 (2 in 2001) Estimated 2006 Deaths and 2006 Federal Expenditures (NIH) Heart Disease Stroke HIV / Aids 675,000 155,000 12,000 $ 2000 Million 330 Million 2700 Million “Spinning” Facts: Reframing “The Administration today released its quarterly U.S. unemployment figures, and the good news is that 34,000 new jobs were created in this past fiscal quarter, with an unemployment rate of 4.5%, representing only 15 million out of fully 300 million people, the lowest in the last 20 yr.” “The minority party today sharply criticized the Administration’s economic performance this past fiscal quarter, noting that only 34,000 new jobs were created. Moreover, fully 4.5% of the U.S. population – nearly 15 million people – remained jobless. “Spin” and Scientific Catastrophism: Framing the Present as the Inevitable Future: Say there is impending catastrophe; inspires you to be morally righteous and do something for a cause Overpopulation “A cancer is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells; the population explosion is an uncontrolled multiplication of people… The battle to feed all of humanity is over. In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now. At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate... We must have population control at home, hopefully through changes in our value system, but by compulsion if voluntary methods fail.” Teachers were stopping lectures telling students to tell their parents not to have any more kids; encourage spouses to get sterilized. “Spin” and Scientific Catastrophism: Overpopulation As of 2014: – – The birth rate in developing countries has declined from 6 children per couple in 1950 to 3 children per couple today. The birth rate in developed countries has declined from 3.3 children per couple in 1950 to 1.6 today, below the replacement rate. Japan- worries that there isn’t enough children being born to replace the people that are dying – Global per capita food production is 40 percent higher today than as recently as 1950. The Coming Ice Age Newsweek (April 28, 1975) ran an article entitled “The Cooling World” – – “The central fact is that after three quarters of a century of extraordinarily mild conditions, the earth’s climate seems to be cooling down.” "[t]he longer the planners (politicians) delay, the more difficult will they find it to cope with climatic change once the results become grim reality " FACT – Global average near-surface near-surface atmospheric temperature rose 0.6 ± 0.2 ° Celsius (1.1 ± 0.4 ° Fahrenheit in the 20th century. Temperatures did not cool and we are nowhere near impending ice age; we just had a little blip that everyone got all nervous about “Spin” and Scientific Catastrophism: Global Warming People support GW “Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations“ concentrations“ (United States Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC, 2007) “If human beings follow a business-as-usual course, continuing to exploit fossil fuel resources without reducing carbon emissions or capturing and sequestering them before they warm the atmosphere, the eventual effects on climate and life may be comparable to those at the time of mass extinctions.” extinctions.” (James Hansen, 2006) People reject GW “Global temperature has risen about a degree since the late 19th century … However, what the public fails to grasp is that the claims neither constitute support for alarm nor establish man's responsibility for the small amount of warming that has occurred." - Richard Lindzen, MIT. "Believe it or not, global warming is not due to human contribution of carbon dioxide. This in fact is the greatest deception in the history of science.” - Timothy Ball, University of Winnipeg. An Even More Inconvenient Truth?: Global Cooling “CO2 variations show little correlation with our planet's climate on long, medium and even short time scales… [we] are consistently finding excellent correlations between the regular fluctuations of the sun and earthly climate. This is not surprising. The sun and the stars are the ultimate source of energy on this planet… ” “Solar scientists predict that, by 2020, the sun will be starting into its weakest Schwabe cycle of the past two centuries, likely leading to unusually cool conditions on Earth… Solar activity has overpowered any effect that CO2 has had before, and it most likely will again. If we were to have even a medium-sized solar minimum, we could be looking at a lot more bad effects than 'global warming' would have had.” - Timothy Patterson, Carleton University People suggest we may be facing an ice age bc the sun is entering a cooling phase. Global cooling > global warming. -GLOBAL WARMING CONDITIONS ARE FALLING Suppression of Opinion in Climate Change Debate “Part of the solution is getting the deniers out of our discourse. You know, we cant have these people- they’re absolutely toxic. And so part of the message in this book is to get the deniers out of the picture.” –Bill Nye, 11/10/15 Earth Temperatures Over the Past 2000 Years Man-Made CO2 Emissions: The Cause of Global Warming? The New Ice Age? All four global temperature tracking outlets (Hadley, NAA’s GISS, UAH, RSS) have released updated data. All show that over the past year, global temperatures have dropped precipitously… the total amount of cooling ranges from 0.65 C up to 0.75 C – a value large enough to wipe out most of the warming recorded over the past 100 years. New Data: No Global Warming for Last 15 Years ClimateGate 2010 In November, 2009, a whistleblower published to the Web 61 MB of private email correspondence among scientists involved in the United Nations (IPCC) climate reports. The emails reveal that: – evidence was suppressed or manipulated to favor human-caused global warming. – Freedom of Information requests for the raw data were ignored, and much of the raw data was “lost.” – scientists who did not agree with human-caused global warming were shunned. Director Philip Jones of the Climate Research Unit at East Anglia University in Britain (where the Emails were retrieved, and a centerpoint for IPCC research), was forced to step down. Numerous other scientists are now under investigation. Several claims contained in the IPCC climate reports have been withdrawn as unsubstantiated and based on anecdotal evidence. In February, 2010, Prof. Jones conceded that there had been no global warming since 1995, and that there was doubt whether the earlier 20 th Century warming was unprecedented. The Global Warming models simply seem not to fit what has happened in the past decades, however they make predictions based on centuries so they could end up to be true. Fridlund teaching both sides Polar Bears and Global Warming Headline: “Global warming sees polar bears stranded on melting ice” “They cling precariously to the top of what is left of the ice floe, their fragile grip the perfect symbol of the tragedy of global warming.” A Reframing of the Polar Bear Situation: All how you spin it vv Polar bears, which are an unendangered species, hop from ice floe to ice floe in search of seals, often swimming as far as 100 miles a day. Believers www.Climate.nasa.gov http://www.skepticalscience.com Skeptics www.climatedepot.com https://wattsupwiththat.com Polar Bears People Hunt and Kill Polar Bears -we’re bad Harp Seals Polar Bears Hunt and Kill Harp Seals -whos bad now? Who Is on the Good Side of the Circle of Life? Depends on the context in which we see these creatures- when theyre cuddly vs when theyre killing Reframing Our attitudes and feelings depend strongly upon the context in which they are framed. Changing the context in which our attitudes and feelings are solicited can change those attitudes and feelings. Beware of “spin”! Our generation nowadays is incapable of having intellectual conversations either response with ad hominem attacks and shaming people for having positions people run off to safezones when faced w opposition...
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