CH 1 Review - Annual Objectives Annual objectives are...

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Annual Objectives 年度目标 是指把企业制定的与战略期相一致的战略计划目标通过分解形成的战略期内各年度 的战略目标 . Annual objectives are short-term milestones that organizations must achieve to reach long-term objectives. Like long-term objectives, annual objectives should be measurable, quantitative, challenging, realistic, consistent, and prioritized. They should be established at the corporate, divisional, and functional levels in a large organization. Annual objectives should be stated in terms of management, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, R&D, and MIS accomplishments. Competitive Advantage 竞争优势 Strategic management is all about gaining and maintaining competitive advantage . This term can be defined as “anything that a firm does especially well compared to rival firms.” When a firm can do something that rival firms cannot do or owns something that rival firms desire, that can represent a competitive advantage. Having less fixed assets than rival firms also can provide major competitive advantages. Normally, a firm can sustain a competitive advantage for only a certain period because of rival firms imitating and undermining that advantage. Thus, it is not adequate to simply obtain competitive advantage. A firm must strive to achieve sustained competitive advantage by (1) continually adapting to changes in external trends and events and internal capabilities, competencies, and resources ; and by (2) effectively formulating , implementing, and evaluating strategies that capitalize on those factors. (1) 不断适应外 部的趋势和事件与内部能力,能力和资源的变化 ; 和( 2 )有效地制定,实施和评估 关于这些因素,利用战略。 An increasing number of companies are gaining a competitive advantage by using the Internet for direct selling and for communication with suppliers, customers, creditors, partners, shareholders, clients, and competitors who may be dispersed globally. E- commerce allows firms to sell products, advertise, purchase supplies, bypass
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intermediaries, track inventory, eliminate paperwork, and share information. In total, e- commerce is minimizing the expense and cumbersomeness of time, distance, and space in doing business, thus yielding better customer service, greater efficiency, improved products, and higher profitability. Empowerment is the act of strengthening employees’ sense of effectiveness by encouraging them to participate in decision making and to exercise initiative and imagination, and rewarding them for doing so. 授权 ( Empowerment ) :设立准则 , 以便员工可准确执行 ; 准则范围内 , 采用有效方式执行 ; 鼓励他们参与决 策和行使的主动性和想象力,并奖励他们 .
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