Human Resources Management Chapter 5

Human Resources Management Chapter 5 - Job Analysis A...

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Unformatted text preview: Job Analysis A Prelude to Recruitment and Placement Overview • What is job analysis? • How can you use this tool in your organization? • Methods of job analysis • How it works • Real world example • An exercise • Summary Definitions • Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals • Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization 3 Definitions (Continued) • Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization • Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job • Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job 4 How can it be used in your organization? • Job analysis assists HR in determining: – – – – – – Necessity of the job Equipment needed Skills required Supervision Working conditions Management/employee interaction How can it be used in your organization? • Recruiting – Keyword searches on resumes that match job requirements • Selection • Appraisal • Salaries and Incentives • Training and Development Foundation of all HR practices HR HRPlanning Planning Legal Legal Compliance Compliance Employee Employee Relations Relations Staffing Staffing JOB ANALYSIS JOB ANALYSIS Rewards Rewards Safety Safety && Health Health ©SHRM 2009 7 Training Training Performance Performance Management Management Foundational • Training: • HR planning: – Training needs for new employees. – Training program content. – Training evaluation. – Work design. – Skills required. • Staffing: – Advertising in labor market. – Selection criteria. – Selection methods. – Succession planning. ©SHRM 2009 • Performance management: – – – 8 Performance standards. Evaluation criteria. Appraisal forms and methods. – Feedback and communication with employees. Foundational • Safety and health: • Employee relations: – Training required. – Protective equipment needed. – Hazard communications. – Accommodations for medical impairments. – Work rules, policies and procedures. – Clear lines of authority and responsibility. – Union work settings. • Legal compliance: – – – – • Rewards: – Value of each job for compensation purposes. – FLSA status. – Pay adjustments. ©SHRM 2009 9 Recordkeeping. Accommodations. Training. Compensation practices. – Equal employment practices and affirmative action. Question • “What information would you need analyze a job?” • Job analysis serves as the foundation for every HR function. A well-conducted job analysis follows a systematic method to collect and analyze information about the job(s) being studied. How can it be used in your organization? • Job analysis can also: – Help the company remain profitable and competitive – Help the company keep up with technology – Prevent employees from being overworked – Help the company stay in compliance with government regulations Nuts and bolts • What is analyzed? – Work activities – Working conditions • Supervisors • Location • Schedule – Machines and equipment Nuts and bolts • What is analyzed? (cntd.) – Job performance • Operations • Standards • Time – – – Experience, training, and skills Supervision and promotion patterns Products/services completed Nuts and Bolts • Who is involved in the job analysis? – – – – – – Management Supervisors Job analysts Job incumbent Unions Consultants Methods of Job Analysis • Observation • Interview – Individual – Group • Questionnaires – PAQ • Diary • Technical Conference • Critical Incident Technique Methods of Job Analysis • Observation Method – Analyst observes incumbent • Directly • Videotape – Useful when job is fairly routine – Workers may not perform to expectations Methods of Job Analysis • Interview Method – Individual • Several workers are interviewed individually • The answers are consolidated into a single job analysis – Group • Employees are interviewed simultaneously • Group conflict may cause this method to be ineffective Methods of Job Analysis • Questionnaires – Employees answer questions about the job’s tasks and responsibilities – Each question is answered using a scale that rates the importance of each task Methods of Job Analysis • Questionnaires (ctnd.) – Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) • A structured, behavioral questionnaire • 194 items in 6 categories – – – – – – Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships Job context Other characteristics Methods of Job Analysis • Diary Method – Employees record information into diaries of their daily tasks • Record the time it takes to complete tasks – Must be over a period of several weeks or months Methods of Job Analysis • Technical Conference Method – Uses experts to gather information about job characteristics Methods of Job Analysis • Critical Incident Technique (CIT) – Takes past incidents of good and bad behavior – Organizes incidents into categories that match the job they are related to • Involves 4 steps Methods of Job Analysis • CIT steps – Brainstorm and create lists of dimensions of job behaviors – List examples of effective and ineffective behavior for each dimension – Form a group consensus on whether each incident is appropriately categorized – Rate each incident according to its value to the company How It Works • Conducting the job analysis – Know the purpose – Gather Information about jobs to be analyzed • Books • Charts • Trade union literature • Government agency literature – Use employee input How It Works • Conducting the job analysis (ctnd.) – Choose an efficient method of collecting information – Gather information from employee/supervisor about the job – Draft a job description – Obtain supervisor approval A Real World Example • The Department of Labor – Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee – Information organized into 3 categories • Data • People • Things A Real World Example Work Functions Data People Things 0. Synthesizing 0. Mentoring 0. Setting up • Coordinating 1. Negotiating 1. Precision work • Analyzing 2. Instructing 2. Operating • Compiling 3. Supervision 3. Driving • Computing 4. Diverting 4. Manipulating • Copying 5. Persuading 5. Tending • Comparing 6. Speaking 6. Feeding 7. Serving 7. Handling *U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p.xix. 8. Helping A Real World Example • Job titles are listed in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles • Each job is given a code – Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7) • See previous table An Exercise • Bruce Spuhler, customer service manager at BGS Sports, wants to conduct a job analysis on how his employees interact with customers and other employees. • What steps should Bruce take to implement a successful job analysis, and what method should he use to analyze his employees? An Exercise • Possible Answer: 1. Determine the Purpose- to reinforce good behavior among employees and provide better customer service 2. Gather as much information as possible about retail and customer service, including past experiences with customers An Exercise 3. Choose best method of job analysis -Critical Incident Technique -This would allow Bruce to discuss with his employees past incidents and whether they were effective or not -Assign values of effectiveness 4. Gather information from workers and other managers about the job An Exercise 5. Draft a behavioral job description 6. Identify areas that need improvement, and implement training programs to improve those areas Summary • Job analysis is an effective approach to gathering information about jobs • There are 6 popular techniques to conducting job analyses • Job analysis is directly related to nearly every function of Human Resource departments in organizations Job Design • Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization • Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker 34 Job Design • Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker • Reengineering – Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed 35 ...
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