Group 5 Fe, Cu, Zn - Group 5 IRON movement of electrons...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Group 5 IRON F UNCTIONS I N T HE B ODY Iron plays an important role in many parts of the body, namely: immune function; cognitive development; temperature regulation; energy metabolism; and work performance. Iron switches back and forth between 2 ionic states: Ferrous iron (reduced state): Fe ++ Iron has lost 2 electrons and has a net positive charge of 2 Ferric iron (oxidized state): Fe +++ Iron has lost a third electron and has a net positive charge of 3 Iron can serve as a cofactor (a substance that works with an enzyme to facilitate a chemical reaction) to enzymes involved in redox reactions because ferrous iron can be oxidized to ferric iron and ferric iron can be reduced to ferrous iron. Iron is a component of 2 proteins that are involved in the transport and metabolism of oxygen. In hemoglobin , iron is the O 2 -carrier of the blood, which transports O 2 from the lungs to all tissues and assists in the transport of some CO 2 back to the lungs for expiration. The kidneys produce erythropoietin when the O 2 -carrying capacity of the blood begins to decline. Is enhances RBC synthesis and stimulates RBC release from the bone marrow . In myoglobin , iron provides O 2 to skeletal and heart muscle cells. * In the mitochondria, the electron transport chain uses iron as a component of cytochromes that carry electrons from NADH+H + and FADH 2 to molecular oxygen. * When iron functions in cytochromes of the ETC and in iron-requiring enzymes, iron will switch between 2 valences (Fe ++ and Fe +++ ) which catalyzes the movement of electrons either along the ETC or as part of an enzyme reaction. Iron’s ability to readily change valences is very useful when iron is confined in these systems, but this also makes iron very toxic if the iron roams free: iron can catalyze destructive reactions, including the formation of free radicals ! The conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the first step of the citric acid cycle requires an iron-containing enzyme. * *The limitation of these 3 processes in iron deficiency explains why this condition readily leads to fatigue upon physical excursion. Iron found in enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum contributes to: alcohol metabolism; drug detoxification; and carcinogenic excretion, especially in the liver. Iron in peroxidase enzymes help breakdown toxic O 2 species like hydrogen peroxide. Peroxidase enzymes are found in white blood cellsand platelets (clotting factors in blood). Iron functions as a cofactor for some enzymes involved in: collagen synthesis; various neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin); and eicosanoids. Iron forms a part of the electron carriers that participate in the electron transport chain. Electron carriers in the pathway forms water by transferring hydrogens and electrons to oxygen, and make ATP for the cells’ energy use.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern