PSY_1_Conditioning:Learning - NOTE All course...

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Unformatted text preview: NOTE All course materials (class lectures and discussions, handouts, examinations, Web materials) and the intellectual content of the course itself are protected by United States Federal Copyright Law, and the California Civil Code. UC Policy 102.23 expressly prohibits students (and all other persons) from recording lectures or discussions and from distributing or selling lectures notes and all other course materials without the prior written permission of the Instructor (see ). Students are permitted to make notes solely for their own private educational use. Exceptions to accommodate students with disabilities may be granted with appropriate documentation. To be clear, in this class students are forbidden from completing study guides and selling them to any person or organization. This text has been approved by UC General Counsel. Conditioning and Learning Foundations of Conditioning Aristotle (350 B.C.E.) – Laws of Association; Causality is simply our reality of trying to turn events into discrete chunks -Cant ever know the cause, its simply a stream of continuous events: saying that gravity made bottle drop to ground, well theres an association to it, we dropped the bottle, whyd we drop it? To show you something etc etc – – – Frequency Intensity Contiguity British Empiricism – – – – René Descartes (1650) – body as machine John Locke (1690) – “tabula “tabula rasa” rasa” doctrine David Hume (1750) – S-S building blocks Robert Whytt (1750) – physiology of reflexes Ivan Pavlov -militaristic general in his laboratory Be mad if stuff wasn’t done 100% (1849-1936) Lectures on the function of the principal digestive glands (1897) - Paavlov’s Conditioning of Digestive Secretions (~1890-1900) o Esophageal incision in dog, made it so dog could eat all day and it would just dribble out of his throat and the food that made it to the tummy would leave through the stomach opening but w stomach acid too o Saw that the stomach was still producing acid; shows that it makes acid in response to your body expecting food, not just by food actually being there - o Psychological preparation for food to be received causes production of stomach acid On humans too; same tests on mental retards of implanting fistulas on their face/jaw Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes (1926) Reflexes are the basis of behavior in animal and man Pavlov’s Reflex Formulation Two Basic kinds of Reflexes (Stimulus Response) “Wired-In Reflexes”- dogs salivating when they heard Pavlovs footsteps because that sound is a signal for the dogs to expect their food bc in the morning hed bring them food – e.g., salivation, gag, orienting (hear noise and ur looking, bones in ears tightening, heartbeat lowering, moving head)), limb withdrawal (pullaway when touch something hot-) – occur unconditionally don’t have to be taught; theyre automatic – “unconditional reflexes” (US UR) “Psychic Reflexes”; reflexes you build and overlay on top of wired ones – – – Appear after specific training experiences occur conditionally occur after being in certain conditions/ conditional stimuli “conditional reflexes” (CS CR) Acquisition (Learning) 1. Start with unconditional reflex… US (meat) UR (slurp) 2. Predict US using CS many times.. CS (bell) - - > US (meat) UR (slurp) Extinction (testing) 3. After predicting US using CS many times 4. Test with only CS (omit US) Unconditional Reflexes: Salivation to Food Conditional Reflexes: Salivation to bell (even before dogs saw or smell the food; conditioned to realize bell is signal for food; built a new reflex) dog would eventually lose interest in the bell if there wasn’t some reward after it Humans can be classically conditioned too, not just animals Patellar tendon reflex test add a conditioned stimulus of a sound tone beep soon youll start to knee jerk not just in response to a pop to the knee but to the sound tone too PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)- war, assault, bulimia nervosa, pre-sleep stressing about next day assignments and schedule etc CS ( weapon sound) - - > US(blast) UR (intense fear) Now hearing a sound like a jackhammer (CS) CR (intense fear) One trial was sufficiently intense to condition you for a long time; can be disabling CS (male’s smell sound or voice)- - > US (assault) UR (intense fear) now whenever you smell cologne and alcohol for example-> CR (intense fear) CS (full stomach after binge) - - > US (finger down throat) UR (nausea, purging) Full stomach (CS) now becomes a cue to feel nauseous and purge (CR) -Becomes involuntary, automatic binge-purge cycle, and the involuntary part of sticking finger down throat becomes irrelevant to achieving the newly conditioned response CS (lying in bed) - - > US (omg its super late I need to get to sleep now!!) UR (anxiety and insomnia from yelling at yourself in bed) -Lying in bed (CS) soon becomes a cue to anxiety and insomnia (CR), just by virtue of having built of this Pavlovian conditioning loop Applications of Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Phobias e.g., “Little Albert” (Watson tried to show that fear could be conditioned in an infant by pavlovian response); would smack a sledgehammer and make horrible noise behind baby albert while a rat was put in front of albert; traumatized and now baby albert would cry when he sees a rat after hearing horrible noise so many times in correlation with it). Turned out that Baby Albert grew up with brain damage and was actually retarded and Watson hid that horrible, experimented and published findings on Albert when he prob wasn’t really classically conditioned but rather just traumatized Watson & Raynor (co grad student who he had affair with/married) (1920) - Watson’s Behaviorism; became an evangelist for psychology (father evangelist priest), -recruited by Johns Hopkins while he was at UChicago -Thought psychology could reprogram you and remold your personality, had some dogmatic, evangelist-like advocate for behaviorism Watson’s “Behaviorist Manifesto” 1913 “Psychology as the behaviorist views it” published in Psychological Review Assertions o Psychology had failed to develop as a natural science because it had focused on consciousness o “Consciousness” was neither a definable nor a useful term o Since consciousness could not be studied, there was no need for introspection; no means of verifying, can only go by patient’s testimony o Goal of psychology was to study behavior o Psychology should become the science of the observation, prediction and control of behavior After reading Pavlov, Watson concluded that the conditioned reflex was central to all behavior Watson seemed to lack visual imagery: “thinking” for him was simply the habit of “silent speech.” Thinking = simply speech brought inward; ex. When we are babies we say everything on our mind but eventually we talk so much and have so much to say that parents tell us to keep it to ourselves and we put it inward Watson’s Approach to Child-Rearing Whereas Watson had earlier granted instinct a role, now environment and conditioning were omnipotent o “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes even beggarmen and thief, regardless of the talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” Watson, Behaviorism, 1924. (1928) Watson (with Raynor) wrote Psychological Care of Infant and Child, a dogmatic child-rearing manual o “There is a sensible way of treating children. Treat them as though they were young adults. Dress them, bathe them with care and circumspection. Let your behavior always be objective and kindly firm. Never hug or kiss them, never let them sit on your lap. If you must, kiss them on the forehead when they say goodnight. Shake hands with them in the morning. Give them a pat on the head if they make and extraordinarily good job of a difficult task.” Watson’s granddaughter wrote a book about child abuse and talked about how Watson (Big John) terrorized her family and how he made her mother a psychological cripple. Dr. Benjamin Spock’s Child Care manual reversed the Watson doctrine and said babies are gentle creatures, related it to how primates take care of their young, said they need lotta touching and love and to be indulged so they know the world is a happy not militaristic place; ended Watson’s dogmatic views toward childrearing. Systematic desensitization- if if you expose yourself in small increments to stuff will help you overcome your fear of it; overcoming phobias is very doable; doable; -relaxation techniques to gradually envision fearful scenarios and u shuffle back and forth between relaxing image and fear inducing one Aversive conditioning (Clockwork Orange Therapy)- induce pain to overcome pleasure – Addictions – notvery successful; with alc addiction, someone would try having alc patient bring fave drink to therapy, then have them drink it all, and then give em something immediately after that makes them nauseous and then they soon after repeated trials will associate the nausea and discomfort with alcohol. Didn’t work though because they felt fine if they drank in environments other than therapy office – Obesity- gadgets on fridge to prevent u from eating – Ego-dystonic homosexuality Everyone thought homosexuality is a disease, got it from bossy mom or bad dad so therapy can re-parent you and fix you pavlovian conditioning trying to hook up shock electrodes to mans scrotum; show pics of male porn and when there was physical arousal, theyd shock the scrotum and reduce erection. Lot of self hatred and shame in being gay, sometimes subject would choose how much electricity to use and they picked way more than a doc would. Homosexuality was a crime; crime against God too Switch vids to heterosexual porn and the person would relax. Go through trial after trial like that have heterosexual relaxation associated w no shock -Lot of placebo effect from it; bisexuals would suppress same-sex desires. Eventually found that no psychological correlates of being gay or lesbian as being indicative of mental disorder. -Distrust now for therapy Nowadays unethical and often illegal to do reparative therapy for homosexuality Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning) Classical conditioning presupposes a passive creature. Instead, animals act to change their environments. Much of animal learning isn’t reflexive but adaptive and flexible. Such adaptive learning is controlled by its consequences. consequences. Antivivisection movement- no more experiments on animals and mentally disabled humans; animals do have consciousness and feelings Edward Lee Thorndike’s “Cat in a Puzzle Box” Experiment -Do Cats learn by insight/ do they have an “ah hah” moment? Like ohh the rod opens the trapdoor in the cage im in! Or are they a dumb animal that learns by trial and error Thorndike tried to study how animals solved problems One of the dominant views was that animals could “reason” Thorndike placed cats in a problem solving situation- puzzle box- and studied precisely how they solved the problem He found no evidence of reasoning or moment of insight They only have “Trial and Accident Success” o After many trials in a puzzle box they will have greater recalibration of reflex strength with a lot of experience Thorndike’s Law of Effect (S---R) Consequence An organism whose actions lead to a satisfying state of affairs is likely to repeat those actions. An organism whose actions lead to an “annoying” state of affairs is unlikely to repeat those actions. Corollary: Law of Exercise- simply repeating an action within a situation strengthened the reaction within the situation: used this as the basis for drill and rote methods he advocated for education Thorndike later downgraded his view on the effectiveness of punishment Thorndike transferred his puzzle box discoveries to the classroom through the use of the “drill method” in education; John Dewey Discovery Method superceded the drill methods with functionalism: education should engage kids and tap in their curiosity, tap their motivation and perplexity to hook them; they should learn because they want to not because they’re held hostage/forced to repeat things. Bad with kids who had a non supportive home life and not motivated had low test scores etc nowadays we have more drill methods where teachers teach a specific curriculum etc o Invented “spelling bee” o Developed lined paper for learning handwriting Skinner’s View of Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning presupposes a passive creature Instead animals act to change their environments Much of animal learning is not reflexive but adaptive and flexible o Look at a sitch in different ways and figure out how to solve it; not a reflex that can be jerked out of someone Such adaptive learning is controlled by its consequences o Solve problem after experience with past problem created a consequence for you and you realize how to do it the right way Skinner’s operant conditioning was nonmentalistic (not focused on making connections in the head) like Thorndike’s but more functionalist (creature puts out a behavior that yields good consequence and it will then flourish in their environment and recur more likely in the future since it solved the problem). Behaviors we put out in a certain environment will either flourish and perpetuate or die off (goes with natural selection and operant conditioning) In his later writings, Skinner likened the emergence and extinction of operant responses to the emergence and extinction of species both reflected “adaptations” ABC’s of Operant Conditioning A- Antecedent Stimulus B- Behavior C- Consequence Contingency (B-C rule) Given a particular situation (A) the nature of the consequences (C) of an animal’s behavior (B) will tend to change the likelihood that the animal will repeat the behavior. If the consequence results in an increased likelihood of that behavior, then that consequence is a reinforcer of that behavior, and the process is called reinforcement. (dancing on table at party and getting hype and cheers) reinforcement not necessarily having to do with what you feel amping up a behavior regardless of whether it is negative or positive If the consequence results in less likelihood of that behavior, that consequence is a punisher of that behavior, that process is called punishment (dancing on table in front of Pope and getting in trouble/ incarcerated) Skinner’s View of Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Elicited- pulled out of an animal Controlled by antecedents (things that come before) Private (ANS)- applies to what happens inside, emotions, internal systems Vs. Operant Conditioning Emitted- things we voluntarily try out, attempts to change the world/our situation Controlled by consequences (what comes after) Public (Striate muscles) Operant Conditioning Procedures Shaping Extinction Discrimination Reinforcement schedules – – CRF – continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement: FR & VR – fixed & variable-ratio schedules FI & VI – fixed & variable-interval schedules Conditioned reinforcement Operant Conditioning Phenomena Partial reinforcement effect Superstition Instinctive drift Operant conditioning of ANS responses Extensions of Operant Conditioning Social policy and thought: Thinking as verbal behavior- -thought -thought we have tiny muscles in our throat that when people think they actually move their larynx; ; said we learn how to think as a spinoff of learning of how to talk; how we are taught to talk to eachother about thr the world Free will as fiction (Beyond (Beyond Freedom & Dignity, Dignity, 1971)- we are taught from a very early age to “make up our mind” and explain our behavior in terms of choice and that it was on our b own behalf ; since we are taught this we then talk in the terms of choice and free will so we thus believe it and verbally acknowledge it Utopian social views (Skinner’s Walden Two, 1961) Psychopathology as reinforcement of deviant behavior- - if you want to change how people behave then make rational reinforcers where people want to do what they ought to do Some applications: Skinnerian Conditioning Behavior modification- widely employed in schools and prisons Assertiveness training Biofeedback Programmed instruction ...
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