PSY_1_DevelopmentRev2 - NOTE All course materials(class...

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NOTE All course materials (class lectures and discussions, handouts, examinations, Web materials) All course materials (class lectures and discussions, handouts, examinations, Web materials) and the intellectual content of the course itself are protected by United States Federal and the intellectual content of the course itself are protected by United States Federal Copyright Law, and the California Civil Code. UC Policy 102.23 expressly prohibits students (and all other persons) from recording lectures or discussions and from students (and all other persons) from recording lectures or discussions and from distributing or selling lectures notes and all other course materials without the prior distributing or selling lectures notes and all other course materials without the prior written permission of the Instructor (see http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100 http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100 ). ). Students are permitted to make notes solely for their own private educational use. Students are permitted to make notes solely for their own private educational use. Exceptions to accommodate students with disabilities may be granted with appropriate documentation. To be clear, in this class students are forbidden from completing study documentation. To be clear, in this class students are forbidden from completing study guides and selling them to any person or organization. This text has been approved by UC General Counsel. Development “Nature-Nurture Problem” Is a trait due to heredity/genetics or to the environment ? Sometimes, the problem is stated as maturation vs. enculturation . Environment can be: Chemical- environmental taxis; lifestyle exposure -> smoking, drinking Pathogen- germs psychological pre-, peri-, or post-natal Error is to state the problem as either-or: Environments can release effects of genes. Genes can control susceptibility to environment. (e.g., Baldwin Effect ) Effects of genes vs. environment can rarely be disentangled. Certain genes make people like or not like alcohol Whether a trait is genetically influenced does not imply that is it fixed (non-plastic):
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in deprivation dwarfism, malnutrition can override height, which is usually fixed. in phenylketonuria (PKU), a simple dietary change can bypass a genetic flaw. in carotenism people can turn orange by eating too many carrots, or with too much sun they can turn redder and darker. Trait plasticity : how much can the environment affect a trait? Waddington’s “Epigenetic Landscape” Outgoingness is shallowly canalized can be moved around pretty easily Height is deeply canalized o Hard to move it from where it’s preset to go (plastic) Epigenetics (“Above” or “Governing” Genetics) Refers to potentially heritable information not contained in the DNA sequences of the genome.
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