PSY_1_MemoryW - NOTE All course materials(class lectures...

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Unformatted text preview: NOTE All course materials (class lectures and discussions, handouts, examinations, Web materials) and the intellectual content of the course itself are protected by United States Federal Copyright Law, and the California Civil Code. UC Policy 102.23 expressly prohibits students (and all other persons) from recording lectures or discussions and from distributing or selling lectures notes and all other course materials without the prior written permission of the Instructor (see http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100). http://policy.ucop.edu/doc/2710530/PACAOS-100 Students are permitted to make notes solely for their own private educational use. Exceptions to accommodate students with disabilities may be granted with appropriate documentation. To be clear, in this class students are forbidden from completing study guides and selling them to any person or organization. This text has been approved by UC General Counsel. Memory- Types of Memory Include: Verbal (studied the most)- remember words and numbers and nonsense syllables Visuospatial- code your way home by having a feel for the terrain; knowing where bathroom is to the left when you walk in your home Motor- ability to tie your shoes, play instruments, ex tell you to write your name super slowly looks like how it does when youre in elementary school Tactile- remember what it feels like to rub emory board on hands/ or remember mud squishing between your toes, satin pillowcases, knowing feel of something hot or cold Autonomic- remembering feeling of scratch on chalkboard that gives you chills -How good your memory is depends on how much testosterone you have in bloodstream. Guys w high testosterone good at visuospatial memory Early Memory Research Herman Ebbinghaus (1880s) Memory for CVCs (trigrams/nonsense syllables: consonant vowel constant BAB, BOP, GIX, SIK, NIP) Tend to remember ones we can attach meaning to As more time elapses between when he tests them on the syllables they memorized, they forget. People remember most/ recall was maximal when asked right after they learned it Exponential decay/steep forgetting curve even a few minutes after learning it! Might be able to recall a little bit of it years later IF you attributed meaning to it Information-Processing Approach to Memory Acquisition: encoding an experience into storable memory Storage: deposit of coded experience into a holding area/ pack it into brain tissues Retrieval: finding the code and reconstructing the experience; Atkinson-Schriffin Memory Model- 2 dicks Talked about different phases of memory/ how when info comes in it different passes through phases on its way to longterm storage Iconic Memory(sensory registers) Partly a consequence of rate of recovery of sensory receptors from stimulation; retain an “after “after image” image” Lasts only a few seconds, vision is longest Working Memory [formerly Short-Term Memory (STM)] Holds only a few items (5-7 typically) Last only a very short period (~30”) Requires sustained attention Very vulnerable to distraction Circulating- have to keep info on loop; interruption and u forget Verbal STM often tested using memory span Aided by chunkingXCIAFBIKGBY all govt agencies, something to build chunks on Best seen as “scratchpad ” or working memory “scratchpad” Organizes information for consolidation Into LTM Long-Term Memory (LTM) Capacity limits are unknown. We don’t know the limits of how long it stays in LTM ( 1 yr, lifetime, etc) Includes both intentional and incidental (remember without trying/not incentivized to remember it)l it)l memory, with intentional memory more effective. Lasting memories occur only after age 3 or 4 (childhood (childhood amnesia). amnesia). you have to ask very specific questions/ probe bit by bit “what did you do today” vague question they say I don’t know. They cannot construct a narrative/ timeline /story of their day until the age of 4 Some kinds of memories can last a lifetime (permastore ), especially if (permastore), they: – are well-learned. – kept fresh with new, related learning. Ex passion for archaeology and you keep fresh on it; stuff will stay with you forever – frequently rehearsed. Are reconstructed, not replayed exactly. – – susceptible to motivated distortion gaps are filled by confabulation Amnesias Anterograde amnesia: amnesia: reduced ability to form new memories; those predating the injury, etc., are often preserved – Occurs in some cases of temporal-lobe damage (case of Henry M.) M.) – Seen in Korsakoff’s syndrome – Often, differences in declarative vs. procedural memory (recollections vs. habits) We don’t remember the memory itself, we remember the last time we tell it to ourself Every time we replay a memory/ tell it, our previous retelling is what we remember, we fill in gaps with convenient plot fillers and even make ourselves look better Retrograde amnesia: amnesia: reduced ability to remember experiences prior to the injury, etc.; new memories can be formed – Frequently seen with use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Long Term Memory Declarative (explicit) memories- recollections Facts: semantic memory- e=mc2, Abe Lincoln was memory Events: episodic memory, this morning I had coffee before class Procedural (implicit) memories- habits Declarative and procedural occur in parallel all the time; Can be thinking you must get 3 things upstairs, engage in procedural memory of going upstairs, when you get there you forget what you needed CA Verbal Learning Test Serial Position effects Primacy effect Recency effect Interference Proactive Retroactive Clustering Serial clustering Semantic clustering Cued recall enhancement Recognition enhancement Serial Position effects- easier to remember first (primacy effect) and last words (recency effect) Interference: Proactive interference- learning new material (the Tuesday list) is harder after just learning other material (Monday list) Retroactive interference- recalling previously learning material (mon list) is harder after just learning new material (the tues list) hard to remember which list stuff was on Serial clustering- remember it in order it was read Semantic clustering- remembering them in category order with some sort of intrinsic meaning (fruits, spices, clothes) “Hypnotic Hypermnesia”hypnosis easy at inducing false memories (why its not allowed in courtroom) Hypnosis does not change one’s overall accuracy of recall. Hypnosis can increase the amount of material someone “recalls,” but the extra material may be unwitting fabrication. Hypnosis increases one’s confidence in one’s recollections, even if they are false (False (False Memory Syndrome) No evidence for “traumatic repression” of memories that hypnosis can de-repress. Serial Position Effects Interference Proactive interference: interference: learning new material (e.g., the Tuesday List) is harder after just learning other material (e.g., the Monday List) Retroactive interference: interference: recalling previously learned material (e.g., the Monday List) is harder after just learning new material (e.g., the Tuesday List)...
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