PSY496 epilepsy reading - Epilepsy Seizure classification...

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Epilepsy: Seizure classification Focal vs generalized in onset Focal = begin a certain spot in the brain =usually because of structural abnormality Can be split in to simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures Can describe seizures based on two things: o Onset is focal or generalized in origin o If consciousness is lost during ictal phase Focal Seizures: 1) Simple Partial : Involve at least one focal area DON’T impair consciousness Sensory, motor autonomic psychic phenomena- déjà vu jamais vu Last a few seconds – up to a few minutes 2) Complex Partial: Involve at least focal area+ impair awareness Starts as a simple partial then evolves to a complex partial or can start as an aura that moves to complex partial with impaired awareness Person will have impaired response to environment Most common type 3) Secondarily generalized seizures: Also been called “grand mal “ = tonic clonic seizures Involve an epileptic cry generalized stiffening bilateral jerking of extremities Last less than 3 minutes Generalized Seizures: Involve both hemisphere at onset- split into 6 categories 1) Absence seizures: o Brief episode of consciousness impairment – no warning and short = <20s o Lots of epilepsy syndromes have absence seizures o A major one: childhood absence epilepsy – 3hz spike o Onset start in childhood/ adolescence and can persist to adulthood o Need to be differentiated from ADHD and complex partial seizures b/c certain anti epileptic drugs – can worsen absence seizures – absolute no use o Brief “ blank stare” 2) Atonic Seizures: o Loss of muscle tone in postural muscle o Start with head drop or if leg muscles are involved= drop to the floor o High beta waves 3) Clonic seizures: o Brief rhythmic jerking mov’t – upper and lower extremities + impaired consciousness
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o Ictal eeg= bilateral epileptiform discharges 4) Tonic seizures: o Sudden onset of bilateral tonic extension or flexion of head, trunk, extremities.
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