PSY322G_AnxietyDisorders - Anxiety Obsessive-Compulsive and...

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Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive and Trauma- and Stressor-related Disorders 1
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What is Anxiety? Three components - Physiological - Cognitive - Behavioral 2
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What is Anxiety? Anxiety vs. Fear 3
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What is Anxiety? Normal Anxiety vs. Abnormal Anxiety Is the fear, anxiety, or avoidance Out of proportion to the actual danger or threat? Persistent ? Inappropriate given the developmental age of the individual? Causing significant distress or functional impairment ? 4
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Anxiety Disorders in DSM-5 (APA, 2013) Panic Disorder (with and without agoraphobia) Specific Phobias Social Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Separation Anxiety Disorder Selective Mutism 5
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Panic Disorder Recurrent unexpected panic attacks At least one panic attack is followed by one month or more of one of the following... Persistent concern A significant maladaptive change in behavior 6
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Panic Disorder Prevalence and Development Females > Males (2:1) Average age of onset : 24 yr Rare in pre-pubescent children Lower rates Latinos, African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and Asian Americans Higher rates Non-Latino whites and American Indians Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters (2005) 7
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Agoraphobia Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable in two (or more) of the following situations (6+ months): Using public transportation Being in open spaces Being in enclosed spaces Standing in line or being in a crowd Being outside of the home alone Fear or avoid because escape might be difficult or help might not be available when developing panic-like symptoms Actively avoid situations, need a companion, or endure with intense fear or anxiety *Situation almost always provokes fear or anxiety 8
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Agoraphobia Prevalence and Associated Features Females > males (2:1) Average age of onset: 20 yr Association with Panic disorder - 30-50% of individuals with agoraphobia report panic attacks or panic disorder Heritability : 61% Rates do not vary across cultural/racial groups Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters (2005) 9
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Panic Disorder (and Agoraphobia) Causes and Risk Factors Triple vulnerability theory 10 Genetic Contribution Psychological Vulnerability Early Developmental Learning Experiences - Negative affectivity - Anxiety Sensitivity - Interoceptive awareness
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