Definition of Operating System

Definition of Operating System - Definition of Operating...

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Definition of Operating System: 1. An operating system ( OS ) is a software, that manages the computer hardware, and provides common services for execution of various application software [4]. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware [3]. 2. An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer [1]. Objectives of Operating System: 1. Convenience : makes computer user friendly. 2. Efficiency : allows computer to use resources efficiently. 3. Ability to evolve : constructed in a way to permit effective development, testing and introduction of new functions without interfering with service [6]. Functions of Operating System: 1. Resource Management: The resource management function of an OS allocates computer resources such as CPU time, main memory, secondary storage, and input and output devices for use [5]. a. Process Management: The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management:
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i. Creating and deleting both user and system processes. ii. Suspending and resuming processes. iii. Providing mechanisms for process synchronization. iv. Providing mechanisms for process communication [4]. v. Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling. b. Memory Management: The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with memory management: i. Keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom. ii. Deciding which processes and data to move into and out of memory. iii. Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed [4]. c. Storage Management: i. File – System Management: The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with the file management: · Creating and deleting files · Creating and deleting directories to organize files. · Supporting primitives for manipulating files and directories. · Mapping files onto secondary storage. · Backing up files on stable (nonvolatile) storage media [4]. ii. Mass – Storage Management: The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with disk management: · Free-space Management · Storage Allocation · Disk Scheduling [4]. d. Device Management: One of the purposes of operating system is to hide the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from the user.
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2. Data Management: The data management functions of an OS govern the input and output of the data and their location, storage, and retrieval [5]. 3. Job Management: The job management function of an OS prepares, schedules, controls, and monitors jobs submitted for execution to ensure the most efficient processing. A job is a collection of one or more related programs and their data [5].
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