Group 3 Pantothenic acid, Biotin, vitamin B6, Folate, vitamin B12

Group 3 Pantothenic acid, Biotin, vitamin B6, Folate, vitamin B12

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Group 3 - Micronutrient Report PANTOTHENIC ACID (Vitamin B5) Chemical Composition: C 9 H 17 NO 5 Also as known as vitamin B 5 Found in all living cells in the body An essential nutrient Name is derived from the Greek word pantothen , meaning "from everywhere," small amounts of pantothenic acid can be found in nearly every food. STRUCTURE - acid-basic-subjective-questionssolved/ CLASSIFICATION : water-soluble vitamin FUNCTION : It is a precursor in the synthesis of coenzyme A, which essential to many biochemical reactions that sustain life. Also, the phosphopantetheinyl moiety of coenzyme A is required for the biological activity of several proteins, including the acyl-carrier protein involved in fatty acids synthesis. The B vitamins help support adrenal function and a healthy nervous system It has the important role in secretion of hormones that assist in metabolism, help in fighting allergies and help in maintaining healthy skin, muscles and nerves. FOOD SOURCES: animal organs (liver and kidney), fish, shellfish, milk products, eggs, avocados, legumes, mushrooms, and sweet potatoes RENI / PRDI: Infants and children: 1.7* mg(0- 6mos.); 1.8* mg(7-12mos.); 2* mg(1- 3yrs.); 3* mg(4-8yrs) Older Children: 4* mg(9-13 yrs old); 5* mg(14-18 yrs old); Adult: 5* mg Pregnant and Lactating: 6* mg for pregnant, 7* mg for lactating DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION In most foods, pantothenic acid is in the form of Coenzyme A - an enzyme needed for breaking down fatty acids,and is required in generating energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The pantothenic acid part of any Coenzyme A is then released in the small intestines during digestion. It is then absorbed by intestinal cells using an active transport system that is saturable and sodium-dependent. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE It is transported to the different body tissues as it binds to red blood cells Only small amounts are stored in the body and it is in the form of a coenzyme Excretion is via the urine. DEFICIENCY : Pantothenic acid deficiency is rare because vitamin B5 can be found in almost any food. However, this deficiency is a serious condition. Symptoms of a vitamin B5 deficiency may include: fatigue
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depression irritability insomnia stomach pains headaches numbness vomiting burning sensations in the hand and feet upper respiratory infections muscle cramps Alcoholics, women on oral contraceptives, people with severe malnutrition, and people with impaired absorption of vitamins and minerals due to certain medications or intestinal disorders are those who are at a greater risk of developing a vitamin B5 deficiency. TOXICITY: Little or no toxicity has been associated with dietary and supplemental pantothenic acid because of this there is no set tolerable upper intake level (UL) There are no reported side effect if large doses of this vitamin is ingested Massive doses (e.g., 10 g/day) may only cause mild intestinal distress or diarrhea.
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