05 Basic Experimental Design

05 Basic Experimental Design - 1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1 2...

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9/28/2016 1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Week 5 1 LECTURE OUTLINE Experimental Design Between subjects design Experimental Group Control Group Posttest only Pretest-Posttest Within subjects design Repeated measures REMEMBER THESE CONCEPTS? Hypothesis Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Reliability Validity 3 1 2 4
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9/28/2016 2 RELIABILITY The consistency (stability) of a measure of behavior Measurement error People Device Variability 5 CONSTRUCT VALIDITY The degree to which a measurement device (or procedure) accurately measures the phenomenon it was designed to measure. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Thermometers don’t measure luminance. Speedometers don’t measure height. IQ tests don’t measure “agreeableness.” Personality tests don’t measure memory capacity. OK, BACK TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENTS A way to a infer causal relationship between variables Manipulations of the IV causes… 8 9 10 11 12
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9/28/2016 3 …changes in the DV A valid way to test alternative explanations Internal (construct) validity EXPERIMENTS Creative solutions Many times novel With precedent Different resources Researchers! Budgets Samples Parsimonious “Elegant” BASIC KINDS OF EXPERIMENTS Between subjects (groups) design Compares the effects of IV assigning one level of IV to each group and measuring the DV for each group. Within subjects (groups) design Compares the effects of IV in a group by measuring the DV at each level of the IV BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN The psychology of groups BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN 13 14 15 16
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9/28/2016 4 Access to many people A short period of time “Between groups design” Comparing groups of people BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN Must build groups Experimental Group Control Group Random Assignment Ensures equivalency of groups RANDOM ASSIGNMENT The process of determining how participants will be divided into groups, whereby each participant has an EQUAL chance of being in any group.
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