11 Speech Perception - 1 Speech Perception WEEK 11 2...

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11/15/2016 1 Speech Perception WEEK 11 Lecture outline Speech sounds Articulators Formants Transitions Speech units Phonemes Morphemes Perceiving speech Coarticulation Categorical Perception Segmentation Cortical Organization Broca’s area Wernicke’s area Speech Speech Most sound is complex Speech sounds are also complex Have many frequencies Distinct pitch, loudness, & timbre Indexical information: elements of a the acoustic signal we use to identify a person Fourier transform Speech is complex sound Speech has spectral characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6
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11/15/2016 2 Produced by vibrating vocal cords “Shaped” by articulators Speech: articulators Tongue Lips Teeth/jaw Hard palate Soft palate Speech Articulators produce different spectral energies Speech Speech is characterized by Changes in amplitude Changes in frequency Common speech sounds are collections of high-amplitude bursts centered on frequencies Vowels add energy to the signal Formants Consonants start/stop sound, add critical differentiation Transitions Visible on spectrogram Spectrogram Speech sounds are groups of formants Lowest frequency band: F1 (or fundamental) Each frequency band higher: F2, F3… Bead Bid Bed 7 8 9 10
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11/15/2016 3 Bad “Sheep like soft grass” Fricatives have higher frequencies, less energy; Vowels have lower freq., more energy Spectrograms “Roy read the will” Roy is longest spoken word “the” is barely there! Spectrograms “I owe you a yo - yo.” Almost unbroken stream of sound Units of Speech UNITS OF LANGUAGE Speech Phonemes: Smallest unit of speech “Speech sounds” Phonemes are NOT letters # of phonemes is different for each language 36 English 11 Hawaiian 40 Russian 37 French 32 Mandarin 32 Korean 30 Farsi 141 Taa (!Xóõ)
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