06 How to Conduct an Experiment (1)

06 How to Conduct an Experiment (1) - 1 HOW TO CONDUCT AN...

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10/5/2016 1 HOW TO CONDUCT AN EXPERIMENT Week 6 LECTURE OUTLINE Experimental Design review Between-Subjects design Experimental group Control group How to conduct an experiment Manipulations (of the IV) Measurements (of the DV) Sensitivity Controlling, beyond the control group Announcement 1 2 3 BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN a.k.a. “Between groups design” 5 BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN AT LEAST Two groups Experimental group Control group Example: Latané’s smoke in the room Bystander effect http://youtu.be/KE5YwN4NW5o 7
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10/5/2016 2 EXPERIMENTS ARE LOGIC PROBLEMS The phenomenon of interest is the bystander effect. Under what conditions would we expect to see the bystander effect? With people around With no people around Hypothesis: Participants will not react to a dangerous situation if they observe that other people are not reacting. COMPARING THE GROUPS 8 9 COMPARING THE GROUPS All else being equal, the presence of others caused the bystander effect in the participant. Less likely to do something about danger. CONDUCTING AN EXPERIMENT MANIPULATING THE IV Cause an effect! MANIPULATION STRENGTH IVs have at least two levels (values): Low or High On or Off Control groups typically have an absence of the IV “Null” levels of IV can be considered a control. Controls are used to measure the ‘natural’ level of the DV. 11 12 13 14
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10/5/2016 3 MANIPULATION STRENGTH Experimental designs should have a strong contrast between a high level and a low level of the IV. Strong manipulations are “artificial” Must contrast this manipulation with “weaker” or more natural levels of the IV. Remember Schacter’s experiment? Most social scientists are not evil, but he definitely played the part!! MANIPULATING THE IV 2 kinds of manipulation Straightforward Staged Change IV to observe the effect in the DV Participants are informed that things change Participants not informed that things change STRAIGHTFORWARD MANIPULATION The participant is informed of what kind of thing will happen Instructions Interaction Experimenter Computer 15 16 17
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