02 Scientific Method c'd^J Hypothesis^J Theory^J Variables (1)

02 Scientific Method c'd^J Hypothesis^J Theory^J Variables (1)

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9/7/2016 1 HYPOTHESES, THEORIES, VARIABLES, DEFINITIONS, MEASUREMENT Class 2 Announcement LECTURE OUTLINE The Scientific Method Observation Literature Review Scientific Articles and Peer Review Hypotheses and Theories Variables Operational Definitions Relationships (between variables!) Measurement Reliability Validity RECAP Science The goals of psychology Causality THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis 3. Experimentation 4. Report 5. Replicate and expand 6. No other way of knowing has such a powerful check on the validity of conclusions. 1 2 3 4 5 6
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9/7/2016 2 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OBSERVATION What interests YOU? Psychological phenomena Observation includes Observation of nature Literature research/review 7 8 LITERATURE RESEARCH/REVIEW Find out what has been done before!! Literature can help you understand 1. Current and past theories 2. Previously explored hypotheses 3. Accepted methods 4. The appropriate variables 5. Operational definitions LITERATURE RESEARCH/REVIEW Books Single topic Broad audience Scientific Journals Collection of single studies Multiple experiments Detailed, but concise Article Published after “Peer Review” Survived rigors of scientific scrutiny Other scientists propose alternative explanations PEER REVIEW PROCESS 1. Complete the study “Report” or write an article 2. 10 11 12
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9/7/2016 3 2. Submit it to a Journal 3. 3. Editor distributes to peers (anonymous) 4. 4. Editorial board chooses: 1. Reject, with possibility to resubmit 2. Reject, with no possibility to resubmit 3. Accept 4. PEER REVIEW PROCESS PEER REVIEW PROCESS PEER REVIEW PROCESS Ensures that only HIGH QUALITY work is published High rejection rates Suggestions to improve the work Suggestions of Alternative Explanations to test Expose and eliminate fraud (Supposed to be) anonymous (Supposed to be) free from external interests PEER REVIEW PROCESS Adaptive Behavior American Journal of Psychology American Psychologist Annual Review of Psychology Asian Journal of Social Psychology Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology Basic and Applied Social Psychology Behavioral and Brain Sciences British Journal of Clinical Psychology British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology British Journal of Psychology British Journal of Social Psychology British Journal of Sports Medicine 13 14 15 16 17
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9/7/2016 4 Cerebral Cortex Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research Cultic Studies Review Current Directions in Psychological Science Developmental Psychology Ecological Psychology European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology European Psychologist Evolution and Human Behavior Health Psychology Industrial and Organizational Psychology The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion International Journal of Transgenderism
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