Oceans Exam 2 Review

Oceans Exam 2 Review - Oceans Exam 2 Review The Water...

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Oceans Exam 2 Review The Water Molecule o A most common substance with most uncommon properties o Water molecule consists of 2 hydrogen atoms (H2) and one oxygen atom (O) o H atoms are positively charged, O atoms are negatively charged o Triangular shape (105 Degree Angle) o Covalent H-O Bonds; each H- atom shares its single electron with the O-atom; O atom shares one electron with each H atom o Unbalanced polar electric charge- electron spends more time around O- nucleus making O slightly negative and H’s slightly positive o Polar charge distribution of each H2O molecule produces +/- attraction or bonding among neighboring H2O molecules called hydrogen bonds o Hydrogen Bonding gives water its extraordinary physical properties o Takes energy to “break” hydrogen bonds o This energy is supplied as heat from the sun o Heat energy is measured in calories (cal); 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1g of water 1 degree. o Heat is a form of energy; it is total kinetic energy of all the atoms and molecules that make up a substance o Temperature refers to intensity of heat; it is average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance o Pressure is the force exerted on a body per unit of its area o Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level (Ps) is one atmosphere and equals the pressured exerted by a 76 cm column of mercury o Heat lost/gained in changing 1g of water from one state to another at constant temperature is called LATENT HEAT, varies with temperature o Addition of heat causes hydrogen bonds of the H2O molecule to break and results in: Melting of ice (to melt 1g of ice at 0 degrees Celsius and Ps, requires an addition of 80 calories of heat energy, called latent heat of fusion) Evaporation of liquid (to evaporate 1g of liquid water at 100 degrees Celsius and Ps, requires an addition of 540 calories of heat energy, called latent heat of vaporization) o At 0 Degrees Celsius and Ps, latent heat of vaporization is about 600 cal o Sublimation of ice; to sublimate 1 g of ice at 0 degrees Celsius and Ps, requires an addition of 656 calories of heat energy, latent heat of sublimation o Loss of heat causes reforming of hydrogen bonds of the H20 molecule and results in Freezing of liquid water (freeze 1g of liquid water at 0 degrees Celsius and Ps, requires loss of 80 calories of heat energy, latent heat of fusion)
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Condensation of vapor (to condense 1 g of water vapor at 100 degrees Celsius and Ps, requires loss of 540 calories of heat energy, latent heat of condensation) o At 0 degrees Celsius and Ps, latent heat of condensation is about 606 cal o Vapor Ice= Deposition o Water distribution: 97% in oceans, 2% as ice, <1% in lakes, <<1% in atmosphere o Water on Earth can exist in 3 phases Liquid oceans, rivers, lakes, in ground, rain drops Solid glaciers, snow packs, sea ice, snow crystals Gas water vapor o 2 nd exam: 2 most abundant elements (oxygen, silicate) o Heat Capacity of any substance, also called specific heat, is defined as the
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2008 for the course AATM 107 taught by Professor Landin during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Albany.

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Oceans Exam 2 Review - Oceans Exam 2 Review The Water...

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