bio 3 - Contraceptive History in US History of...

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11/12/2016 1 History of Contraception Controlling conception = contraception Wide range of methods People didn’t always know what caused pregnancy Yet concern about controlling conception dates back to at least beginning of recorded history Ancient Egypt: women placed dried crocodile dung next to cervix to prevent conception Half of a lemon could act as primitive diaphragm with acidity having spermicidal action Women ingested mercury and lead to prevent or end unwanted pregnancies Although some options did have biological basis, not reliable and some could be dangerous Contraceptive History in US Availability of variety of methods is very recent Early American women learned about contraception from family, friends, physicians, & advertisements Access to information fell sharply in 1873 Anthony Comstock had devout Congregationalist parents and was shocked when moved to NYC in 1860 by easily accessible sex- He became a one man purity movement Comstock Act of 1873 allowed for: Confiscation & destruction of obscene material, including contraceptive devices Physicians could not provide patients with information that might prevent pregnancy Development of black market for contraceptives Contraceptive History in US - Margaret Sanger In early 20 th century, she saw women give birth to child after child in poverty while working as obstetric nurse Promoted changes in legislation and availability of birth control Opened illegal clinic where women could obtain diaphragms & shipped in bulk from Europe Believed that a woman had right to control her own body and to decide to have child Led movement for distribution of information about sexuality and contraception and violated Comstock Laws (Comstock act 1873) Established National Birth Control League (Planned Parenthood Federation of America) in 1914 Opened first birth control clinic in US in 1916- was arrested and spent 30 days in prison Contraceptive History In US- Margret Sanger Margaret Sanger lead to eventual weakening of Comstock laws. Decriminalization of contraceptive use For married couples in 1965 by Supreme Court For unmarried couples in 1972 Margaret Sanger led the search for simple, reliable method of contraception Promoted research that lead to Enovid: first oral contraceptive pill Approved by U.S. FDA in 1960 Today, more than 100 million women worldwide use oral contraceptives Contraceptive Options Today in America Options for controlling fertility Hormonal methods, barrier methods, behavioral methods, abstinence, IUD’s, and sterilization Most successful methods Sterilization, IUD, implants, and injectable hormonal contraceptives
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11/12/2016 2 Barrier Methods starting with Condoms Barrier methods are those that physically prevent the egg and the sperm from meeting Male condoms are a sheath that fits over erect penis with long history Illustration of a man wearing condom in a cave in France, >12000 yrs. old 18 th
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