REPRODUCTIVE CLONING - SBI3U Aliyah Jhingut REPRODUCTIVE...

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SBI3U Aliyah Jhingut November 23, 2014 REPRODUCTIVE CLONING The science behind reproductive cloning In 1885 was the first-ever demonstration of artificial embryo twinning. Hans Adolf Edward shook the 2-celled sea urchin embryos. The 2-celled sea urchin separated and each grew into new fully-grown sea urchin. In 1902 was the experiment was artificial Embryo twinning in a vertebrate. The scientist, Hans Spemann used a stand of baby hair and placed it between the 2-celled salamander, because the cells were much sticker that the sea urchin. Then he tightened the hair between the 2 cells until they separated. Each cell didn’t developed completely but at an early stage. In1928 was the cell nucleus controls embryonic development. Just like in 1902, Spemann used the strand of baby hair to squeeze the fertilized salamander egg to one side and the nucleus to the other side of the cytoplasm. After waiting 4 cell division resulting 16 cells, Spemann cut loose the stand of hair for the nucleus to return to the non-dividing egg side. Then, the cell developed into a new salamander as well as the other cells that were separated. In 1952 was the first ever-successful nuclear transfer. Robert Briggs and Thomas King removed the nucleus from a tadpole embryo, placing it into a frog’s egg whose nucleus has been removed (enucleated). The embryo developed into a tadpole. Nuclear transfer from a differentiated cell was performed in 1958. First, John Gurdon removed the nucleus from the intestinal cell (somatic cell) of a tadpole. Next, Gurdon placed the nucleus into an enucleated frog egg. As a result, the developed tadpole were genetically identical to the   one   from which the intestinal cell was taken. The first mammalian embryo was created by nuclear transfer in 1975. J. Derek Bromhall used a cylinder pipe to remove the nucleus from a rabbit’s embryo, because the rabbit’s cell was smaller than the salamanders and frogs. Next, Bromhall planted the nucleus into the enucleated rabbit cell. After a couple of days, the embryo formed. In 1984, the very first mammal created by nuclear transfer. Since it was an 8-cell lamb embryo, Steen Willadsen used a chemical process to separate one cell from the eight. He used a little amount of electrical shock to be able to merge the cell with an enucleated egg cell. The cell started dividing. Few days later, he put the embryos into
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