Chapter6IndependentQuestions - Chapter 6 IQs Social and...

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Chapter 6 IQs: Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood ____________________________________________________________________________ I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytic Perspectives - Optional Reading B. Social-Cognitive Perspectives 1. Define the viewpoint held by Social-Cognitive Theories. - Social-cognitive theory - social and personality development in early childhood is related to the improvements in the cognitive domain i. Person Perception 2. (a) Define person perception. - The ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender, race (b) Why are preschoolers’ observations and categorizations of people inconsistent? - They base their judgments on the most recent interaction with an individual (c) Define the cross-race effect and age when it is established. - Phenomenon in which individuals are more likely to remember the faces of people of their own race than those of people of a different race (established at age 5) ii. Understanding Rule Categories 3. (a) What is the difference between social conventions and moral rules? - Social conventions : such as customs that govern where to place flatware, are rules that have nothing to do with our fundamental sense of right and wrong - Moral rules : little tolerance for breaking of rules that we view as having a basis on morality, such as laws that forbid stealing, cheating, etc (b) When do children appear to understand this difference? (Between social conventions and moral rules) - Age 2 and 3 - e.g. see stealing another’s toy as more serious violation than forgetting to say thank you - e.g. say stealing and physical violence is wrong, even when the preschool has no explicit rules against them - May be because parents emphasize moral transgressions more than social-convention violations when punishing children iii. Understanding Others’ Intentions 4. Adults typically base their judgments of others’ behavior on their intent (i.e., whether they perceive if the person meant to do something or not). Preschoolers do not base their judgment of others’ behavior solely on intent. What else influences preschoolers’ judgments of others’ behavior, according to the research findings by Thompson (2009)? See third or final paragraph in this sub-section. (preschoolers: intent + final outcomes) - Also base it on the final outcome - e.g. more likely to say a child who wanted to hurt his playmate was “good” if he failed to hit the child in the end II. Family Relationships and Structure A. Attachment
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5. (a) Compare attachment at 12 months and at 2-3 years of age. - Attachment just as strong at 2-3 years of age, but attachment behaviors are less visible - Still seek proximity, sit on lap for example , - But when not afraid or not in stress, will wander farther and farther from her safe base without apparent distress - Can also deal with potential anxiety due to separation by creating shared plans with parents - E.g. ill be home after your naptime! Can we watch movie then?
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