Chapter5IndependentQuestions

Chapter5IndependentQuestions - Chapter 5 Independent...

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Chapter 5 Independent Questions – Social and Personality Development in Infancy I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives – Optional Reading B. Ethological Perspectives – Optional Reading Research Report: Adoption and Development 1. Read the research report entitled “Adoption and Development” on p. 140. (a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted? (See the first paragraph) - Since temperament is inherited, temperament may not match the parents because they are not biological children - Parents may see child’s behaviour as difficult/disturbed (e.g. outgoing child vs. timid parents ) (b) What did Elinor Ames’s (1997) research with Romanian orphans find? - Infants who lived in Romanian orphanages for more than four months had more psychological and motor-behaivour problems than non adopted children - The longer they stayed in orphanage before being adopted, the more serious the difficulties were (c) What did Lucy LeMare’s (2001) research with Romanian orphans find? - Studied the RO 17 years later - Found that significantly more difficulties than Canadian born children and RO children who were adopted early - Challenges in IQ, attention, learning, and peer relationships - However, RO children were just as likely as any other child and the adoption experience continued to be mutually rewarding for both parents and child II. Attachment A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant 2. (a) Define synchrony . a. Like a conversation b. The mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviours shared by a parent and a child (b) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar between fathers and mothers. - In early weeks , father very similar to mothers - touch, talk to, cuddle babies in same way mothers do (c) Identify the parental behaviours that are different between fathers and mothers. - After first weeks of baby’s life, sign of kind of specialization of parental behaviours begin to emerge - Father spend more time playing with baby, more physical roughhousing - Mothers spend more time in routine caregiving and also talk to and smile at the baby more (d) In the final paragraph of this section, it states “However the elements of father involvement that benefit infants are not the same in every culture.” Identify the research findings that illustrate how the benefits of father involvement are cultural-specific. - In cultures where there is gender equality, paternal control seems to hinder the child’s social development (gender equal society – father involvement hinders child’s social development)
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- That is, they try to interrupt and redirect infants’ behaviour in line with cultural expectations for the child’s age and gender - In cultures with strong patriarchal traditions and distinctive role prescriptions for mothers and fathers, paternal control positively influences infants’ social development (patriarchal society – father involvement support the child’s social development) B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents - Optional Reading C.
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