Chapter 2 Independent Questions - Chapter 2 Independent...

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Chapter 2: Independent Questions ______________________________________________________________________________ I. Biological and Evolutionary Theories 1. Summarize the two introductory paragraphs of this section. A. Genetics 2. Define the following terms related to genetics: (a) chromosomes, (b) DNA, (c) genes, (d) genome B. Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Patterns of Inheritance i. Dominant and Recessive Genes - Optional reading ii. Polygenic and Multifactorial Inheritance 3. Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring (from parents or ancestors). There are many different patterns or rules of heredity/inheritance. Some inherited traits are referred to as Mendelian traits (that is, traits that are under the direct control of a single gene). Predicting the expression of traits determined by a single gene (Mendelian traits/monogenic inheritance) is relatively straightforward. However, unlike monogenic inheritance, polygenetic and multifactorial inheritances are complex. (a) What does polygenetic inheritance mean? Many genes influence a trait (b) What does multifactorial inheritance mean? Influenced by genes & environment (i.e., epigenetics: environment is turning certain genes on and off) C. Epigenetics (it influences gene function – gene expression & gene silencing, not gene structure) Some of the traits we inherit cannot be explained by our genes/genome. Epigenetics is a recent theory that suggests heritability can be operating above the genetic level. 4. Define the following terms: (a) epigenome (the sum total of inherited and acquired molecular modifications to the genome that leads to changes in gene regulation without changing the DNA sequence of the genome) , (b) gene expression (turned on), (c) gene silencing (turned off) 5. Summarize the research findings from the field of Epigenetics presented in the third and fourth paragraphs of this section on “Epigenetics”. In animal studies, found that maternal care can physically alter molecular epigenetic structures in offspring o i.e., a mother rat’s increased postnatal levels of feeding and grooming of her pups resulted in calmer rat pups by altering molecular epigenetic structures Some acquired epigenetic modifications can be passed on o i.e., Animal studies shown that epigenetic changes to liver, heart, brain proteins in mice and endocrine, reproductive, and behavioral changes in rats acquired during the lifetime of the parent can be transmitted to the offspring o i.e., Even maternal diet have been shown to transfer across generations in mice populations 6. Read the Research Report on p. 69 in Chapter 3 entitled
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