10 Auditory localization and organization(2)

10 Auditory localization and organization(2) - 1 Auditory...

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11/2/2016 1 Auditory localization and organization WEEK 10 Lecture Outline Introduction to the Scene Analysis Problem Auditory localization Binaural cues Monaural cues Jeffress circuit (and auditory pathway) Scene Analysis Perceptual problems The visual system needs to Separate figure from ground Perceive depth, size, and motion The auditory system needs to Separate signal from noise Noise includes echo! Perceive source, distance Perceive speech (next week!) Auditory scene analysis problem Auditory Scene Analysis Problem Given that the auditory sensory system responds to changes in pressure, how do we understand what and where a single sound source is? Auditory Localization Like in vision, the auditory system uses cues Monaural: One ear Binaural: Two ears Unlike in vision, the auditory system has no direct sensation of location Azimuth Elevation Distance 1 2 3 4 5
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11/2/2016 2 Azimuth and elevation, awesomely represented Localization 6 7 Monaural cues Spectral cue Spectrum: Collection of frequencies in a sound stream Different spectra for the same sound source at different elevations Pinna shapes the incoming pressure waves Hofman et al. (1998) If pinnae important for perceiving elevation, then changing their shape will cause changes in perception Participants reported elevation and azimuth for 12 locations Then, had a mold placed in ear Reported elevation and azimuth for 12 positions again Improvement over three weeks Removing the mold didn’t have an effect!! People remembered the cues Auditory Localization Binaural cues Brain measures differences in sensation between the ears Pressure wave at normal elevation, temp. = 343 m/s Neuron firing, on average = 120 m/s Many neurons, one auditory scene Interaural differences of time (IDT) Interaural differences of level (IDL)
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