Oceans Exam 3 Review

Oceans Exam 3 Review - Oceans Review As Observations Confirm o Expect warm water near equator and coldest waters in polar region due to variational

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Oceans Review As Observations Confirm o Expect warm water near equator and coldest waters in polar region due to variational solar heating o Expect lower than average salinity in high precipitation regions which decreases salinity tropical precipitation zones; high latitude precipitation zones o Expect higher then average salinity in high evaporation zones at deser latitudes o Many different combinations of temperature and salinity produce the same seawater density; in the ocean in order of ascending density o Warm, low salinity equatorial/tropical surface waters have lowest density 1.023 g/cm o Warm, high salinity desert latitude surface waters have higher density 1.0267 o Cold, low salinity, sub polar waters are more dense 1.0276; water if this density is also characteristic of most oceans below 1 km o In winter hemisphere, cold high salinity polar water have the highest density 1.0279 o At a fixed latitude, density, temp and salinity all vary with ocean depth on the average Density o Is low and nearly constant in top, mixed layer o Increases rapidly in pycnocline layer (extends down to about 500m) o Increases with depth slowly below 500 m Temperature o High and nearly constant in top, mixed layer o Decreases rapidly in thermocline layer (extends down 500m) o Decreases slowly with depth below 500m Salinity (like water vapor in atmosphere) o Low and nearly constant in top, mixed layer o Increases rapidly in halocline layer, which extends down about 750m Seawater of constant density is isopycnal Seawater of constant temperature is isothermal Seawater of constant salinity is isohaline Top mixed ocean layer varies with season o Winter (80m) o Summer (15m) o Spring (20m) o Autumn (35m) At any time, for whatever reason, in a vertical column of seawater: o Density increases with depth, column is stable
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o Density decreases with depth, column is unstable because it wants to overturn o Density is constant with depth, column is neutral o Unstable condition produces a density driven circulation in the ocean o Can only happen whenever the salinity and temperature combine to produce more dense water on top of less dense water o In temperate latitudes, surface layer temp changes with seasons Warm summer water is stable- shallow, mixed layer produced by wind 15m Cold autumn water is unstable- deeper mixed later as overturn begins, 35m, Cold winter water is unstable- deep mixed layer due to stron over turning, 80m Warm, spring water is stable- shallow, mixed layer, 20m o Salinity affects stability of seawater less than temperature, except near shores that receive fresh water, or in polar regions where ice melts; those cases, a freshwater lid forms at top Sigma T; oceanographers method of accurately representing seawater density to 5 th decimal place As dense surface water sinks, it eventually spreads out a level above more dense and below less dense water To conserve continuity of flow o Less dense surface water takes its place
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2008 for the course AATM 107 taught by Professor Landin during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Albany.

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Oceans Exam 3 Review - Oceans Review As Observations Confirm o Expect warm water near equator and coldest waters in polar region due to variational

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