CLONING - INTRODUCTION TO CLONING A picture of Dolly the...

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INTRODUCTION TO CLONING A picture of Dolly the sheep By: Ashika Solanki, Tasnia Kazi & Aliyah Jhingut Page 1
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Table of Contents Cloning ............................................................................................................................. 3 Therapeutic Timeline ........................................................................................................ 4 Reproductive Timeline……………………………………………………………………… .... 5 The Science Behind Therapeutic Cloning ........................................................................ 6 The Science Behind Reproductive Cloning ...................................................................... 8 The Benefits of Therapeutic Cloning .............................................................................. 12 The Benefits of Reproductive Cloning ............................................................................ 14 The Controversies of Therapeutic Cloning ..................................................................... 15 The Controversies of Reproductive Cloning ................................................................... 17 References ..................................................................................................................... 18 Page 2
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Cloning Clones are exact genetic copies of organisms. Every single bit of the organism’s DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally—identical twins are just one of many examples, or they can also be made in a lab. There is 2 main ways of cloning: Therapeutic and Reproductive cloning. Therapeutic Cloning: In therapeutic cloning the nucleus of a donor cell is removed. The nucleus contains the genetic material, and the source of DNA can be from any somatic cell in the body, DNA is then injected into the genetic material inside an unfertilised egg. Therapeutic cloning can also be used to clone tissues or an organ to help a patient in need of one. Therapeutic cloning is also known as Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT).Therapeutic cloning started in 1938 after Hans Spemann, a German scientist, succeeded in twinning salamanders by using a hair strand from his child and using it to divide the salamander embryo into two. Therapeutic cloning is still banned in many countries because of many reasons which we will talk about later on in this book. People who support therapeutic cloning are still fighting to get it legal, so they can start doing research and experiments. Reproductive Cloning: Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned. She was born in February 1996. Ever since this successful experiment, people were scared that if the cloning of sheep is possible, will scientists soon start cloning humans as well? Reproductive cloning is when you make a full copy of an organism by using a surrogate mother. Nuclear transfer is a form of cloning . The steps involve removing the DNA from an oocyte (unfertilized egg), and injecting the nucleus which contains the DNA to be cloned. Artificial twinning is the same thing as the natural way of creating identical twins. Natural twins are created after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. When the fertilized egg tries to divide, it creates two cells that continue dividing on their own. This creates two separate individuals in the mother. The two cells will usually be similarly identical because they came from the same fertilized egg. The Science Behind Therapeutic Cloning Page 3
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In therapeutic cloning, stem cells from the patient is isolated and grown on culture media and become genetically identical to the patient. The stem cells are to be extracted an embryo. The purpose of a cloned embryo in therapeutic cloning is to use it to extract stem cells from the cloned embryo without the aim of ever inserting the cloned embryo into a womb of the patient. There are approximately 200 or more cell types in a
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