Copy of CHEMICAL PERIODICITY-PD - Trends in Some Periodic...

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Trends in Some Periodic Properties The physical and chemical behavior of the elements is based on the electron configurations of their atoms. e- configurations can be used to explain many of the repeating or “periodic” properties of the elements
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Categories of electrons Core (inner) electrons – all those shared by the previous noble gas Outer electrons – those in the highest occupied energy level Similar chemical properties of elements in groups is a result of similar outer electron configurations In the main group, the group number equals the number of outer electrons Valence electrons – those involved in bonding In the main group, the outer electrons are valence In the transition metals can include some d electrons
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Ion (Cation and Anion) Neutral atom Add electron Negative ion (Anion) Neutral atom Remove electron Positive ion (Cation) # of electrons added/removed= # of charge F + 1e - F -1 (Anion) Ca -2e - Ca +2 (Cation)
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Main-group ions and the noble gas configurations Octet (Duplet) Rule
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+1 +2 +3 -1 -2 -3 Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements 8.2
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Figure 8.12
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Trends in metallic behavior
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Metallic Behavior Metallic behavior increases left and down Metals tend to lose electrons in reactions Highly metallic elements, are likely to make positive ions Least metallic elements are likely to make negative ions In middle are more likely to make covalent bonds
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Figure 8.14 Defining metallic and covalent radii
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8.3 Atomic Radius - size of atom
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Ionization energy : the energy required to remove an electron from an atom is ionization energy . (measured in kilojoules, kJ) Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s attraction for another atom’s electrons. Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron (also measured in kJ). Atomic Radius/Ionic Radius - size of atom/Ion Definition of Some Periodic Properties
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Atomic radii of the main-group and transition elements. Vertically Vertically The trend for atomic radius in a vertical column is to go from smaller at the top to larger at the bottom of the family.
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