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Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
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Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Normal Chemical Normal Chemical Reactions Reactions Nuclear reactions involve the nucleus Nuclear reactions involve the nucleus The nucleus opens, and protons and The nucleus opens, and protons and neutrons are rearranged neutrons are rearranged The opening of the nucleus releases a The opening of the nucleus releases a tremendous amount of energy that tremendous amount of energy that holds the nucleus together – called holds the nucleus together – called binding energy binding energy Normal” Chemical Reactions involve Normal” Chemical Reactions involve electrons electrons , not protons and neutrons , not protons and neutrons
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Nuclear Chemistry The Nucleus Remember that the nucleus is comprised of the two nucleons , protons and neutrons. The nucleons are bound together by the strong force. The number of protons is the atomic number. The number of protons and neutrons together is effectively the mass of the atom.
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Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity Isotopes of certain unstable elements that spontaneously emit particles and energy from the nucleus . So, some nuclides of an element are unstable, or radioactive . We refer to these as radionuclides. There are several ways radionuclides can decay into a different nuclide.
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Nuclear Chemistry Marie Curie a Pioneer of Radioactivity Lived in France 1898 discovered the elements polonium and radium. Winner of 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with Henri Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie . Winner of the sole 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
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Nuclear Chemistry Types of Radioactive Decay
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Nuclear Chemistry Alpha Decay: Loss of an -particle (a helium nucleus) He 4 2 U 238 92  Th 234 90 He 4 2 + helium nuclei two protons and two neutrons charge +2e can travel a few inches through air can be stopped by a sheet of paper, clothing.
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Nuclear Chemistry Alpha Decay
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Nuclear Chemistry Beta Decay: Loss of a -particle (a high energy electron) 0 −1 e 0 −1 or I 131 53 Xe 131 54  + e 0 −1 Beta particles β : electrons ejected from the nucleus when neutrons decay ( n -> p+ + β - ) Beta particles have the same charge and mass as "normal" electrons. Can be stopped by aluminum foil or a block of wood.
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Nuclear Chemistry Gamma Emission: Loss of a -ray (high-energy radiation that almost always accompanies the loss of a nuclear particle) 0 0 Gamma radiation γ : electromagnetic energy that is released. Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves. They have no mass . Gamma radiation has no charge. Most Penetrating, can be stopped by 1m thick concrete or a several cm thick sheet of lead.
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Nuclear Chemistry Positron Emission: Loss of a positron (a particle that has the same mass as but opposite charge than an electron) e 0 1 C 11 6  B 11 5 + e 0 1
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Nuclear Chemistry Electron Capture (K-Capture) Addition of an electron to a proton in the nucleus As a result, a proton is transformed into a neutron.
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