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Chapter 1Evolution, the Themes of biology, and Scientific Inquiry–Campbell Tenth EditionPLEASE READ CHAPTER ONEConcepts1.The study of life reveals common themes.2.Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.3.In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypotheses.1. The study of life reveals common themes.Biology is the scientific study of lifeThe study of life reveals five unifying themes1)Organization•Life can be studied at different levels, from molecules to the entire living planet.This enormous range can be divided into different levels of biological organizationEach level of biological organization has emergent properties.1.Biosphere: all life on Earth and all the places where life exists: air , water, and land2.Ecosystem: consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonlivingcomponents of the environment with which life interact.3.Community: The array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem4.Population : all the individuals of a species5.Organisms: individual living things6.Organ systems : digestive or reproductive systems etc7.Organs : several tissues coordinate to form organs - liver, lungs, brain etc8.Tissues : a group of similar cells - bone, muscles, nerve cells etc9.Cells : the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life10.Organelle: the components of cells11.Molecules : CO2, O2etc12.Atoms : the lowest level -C, H, O, N, P etc.To explore emergent properties, biologists complement reductionism withsystems biology,analysis of the interactions among the parts of a biological systemReductionismis the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are moremanageable to study.For example, studying the molecular structure of DNA helps us to understandthe chemical basis of inheritanceAll cells share certain characteristics.oEvery cell is enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials betweenthe cell and its surroundings.oEvery cell uses DNA as its genetic information.
There are two basic types of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.