Tissues-four primary tissue types 1 Epithelial 2 Connective...

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Tissues -four primary tissue types: 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Neural -however: all tissues in the body develop from three germ layers 1. ectoderm - epithelial + neural 2. mesoderm - connective + muscle + some epithelial 3. endoderm – organs + some epithelial
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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: OSSEOUS TISSUE AND SKELETAL STRUCTURE Part A C H A P T E R F I V E
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Bones of the skeleton Cartilage Ligaments Stabilize and connect bones Skeletal System Skeletal System
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Structural support framework for attachment Storage of minerals and lipids calcium bone salts (1-2 kg: 98% of it in bone) Blood cell production, triglyceride storage triglycerides stored in the yellow marrow RBCs, WBCs, platelets in red bone marrow Protection of delicate tissues and organs ribs - heart and lungs; skull - brain; pelvis - digestive and reproductive Leverage: change the magnitude and forces generated by skeletal muscles Functions of the Skeletal System Functions of the Skeletal System
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binds structures together provides support protects organs fills cavities produces blood Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
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components: matrix + cells -matrix: non-cellular support material -comprised of extracellular protein fibers + ground substance (fluid + sugar) -proteins - e.g. collagen fibers, elastic fibers, fibronectin -sugars – e.g. hyaluronan, glucosamine -cells: secrete the matrix -cells vary from tissue to tissue Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
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Connective tissues of the Body Connective tissues of the Body Loose – loose/areolar CT, fat & reticular Dense – dense (regular, irregular), elastic Supportive – bone & cartilage Fluid – blood & lymph
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Supportive connective tissue Cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes, OPCs cells only contribute total of 2% total bone tissue volume Solid extracellular matrix framework of protein fibers: collagen type I other specialized proteins: osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin ground substance – sugar + water: e.g. hyaluronan calcium phosphate crystals: hydroxyapatite Osseous Tissue Osseous Tissue
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Bone matrix is contains a large amount of hydroxyapatite crystals (calcium phosphate) Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 can withstand compression very well 2/3 weight of bone remaining 1/3 is collagen fibers, proteins & other salts collagen contributes flexibility Bone: Histological Organization Bone: Histological Organization
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