Membranes-many body structures and surfaces are covered...

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Membranes -four types: 1. serous 2. mucous 3. cutaneous 4. synovial -many body structures and surfaces are covered with membranes -superficial sheet of epithelial cells + underlying connective layer -cover & protect
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1. Serous membranes -line the subdivisions of the abdominopelvic cavity and thoracic cavity -covers, protects and moistens/lubricates -comprised of an epithelial layer (simple squamous epithelium) called a mesothelium + underlying loose areolar connective tissue -the mesothelium secretes a watery fluid = serous fluid (separates and lubricates the movement of organs) -divided into two separate layers: 1)outer parietal layer - lines the cavity 2) inner visceral layer - covers organs -serous membrane lining the pleural cavity (lungs) = pleura - serous membrane lining the pericardial cavity (heart) = pericard - serous membrane lining the peritoneal cavity (abdomen) = perito
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2. Mucous membranes -line cavities that directly communicate with the exterior environment e.g. respiratory, urinary, reproductive, digestive -covers, protects and moistens/lubricates -epithelial layer (simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple column moist through production of mucus by glands, other glandular secr exposure to fluids (e.g. urine) -in areas of physical stress = stratified epithelial tissue rathe -connective tissue layer is loose areolar tissue = lamina propria --supports embedded blood vessels and nerves
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3. Synovial membranes -extensive areas of areolar connective tissue covered by incomplete layers of simple squamous or cuboidal epithelial cell s -lines & lubricates the synovial joint cavity - to permit easy movement of bones -the epithelium differs from others: 1) there is no basal lamina 2) incomplete cellular layer - gaps between cells 3) derived from macrophages and from the surrounding connective tissue -some cells within this membrane are phagocytic to remove pathogens -others are secretory - secrete a watery synovial fluid for lubrication
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4. Cutaneous membrane (skin) -covers the surface of the body -epithelial layer (keratinized stratified squamous) -underlying areolar tissue reinforced with dense connective tissue
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Integumentary System (Skin) skin covers the entire body surface -including the anterior surface of the eye! -covers ~ 22 square feet -about 16% of total body weight skin turns in at the mouth, nasal cavity, anus and urethr openings – meets the mucous membranes lining these ca comprised of all four tissues: 1. epithelium – lines the surface 2. connective – provides strength & resiliency 3. muscle – smooth muscle controls blood vessel and controls movement of hairs 4. nervous – provides sensation and controls SM
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function s: 1. physical protection: protection from microbes, abrasio 2. chemical protection – keratin - dryness of the epiderm 3. regulation of water exchange: by sweating 4. regulation of body temperature: thermoregulation -by sweating & adjusting blood flow through the dermis 5. excretion of wastes -by sweating 6. nutrition – synthesis of vitamin D precursor -activated in skin, converted to calcitrol in liver 7. sensation: touch, pressure, vibration, pain & thermal 8. immune defense: Langerhans cells of the epidermis
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-two major components : 1. cutaneous membrane = skin (epidermis, derm 2. accessory structures = hair, nails, exocrine gla
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