3. SkeletalSystem - Anatomy of Skeletal Elements The...

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Anatomy of Skeletal Elements
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The Musculoskeletal system 206 bones grouped into the axial and appendicular skeletons 650 muscles approximately 40% of your body weight also divided into an axial and an appendicular division
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Classification of Bones 6 types - based on anatomical classification Long bones = greater length than width Short bones = cube-shaped, spongy bone except at surface Flat bones = two parallel plates of compact bone sandwiching spongy bone layer
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Irregular bones = cannot be grouped Sesamoid bones = develop in tendons where there is considerable friction, tension and stress Sutural bones = located within joints between cranial bones
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Bone Markings (surface features) Used to identify specific elevations, depressions, and openings of bones Bone markings provide distinct and characteristic landmarks for orientation and identification of bones and associated structures.
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Bony Processes Depressions and openings Fissure – narrow slit Foramen – hole for nerves, blood vessels Fossa – cuplike depression Sulcus – furrow on a bone surface, contains a nerve or blood vessel Meatus – tubelike opening Processes – projection or outgrowth on bone for attachment Condyle – smoothened process at end of bone, forms a joint Facet – smooth flat surface, forms a joint Head – rounded condyle on a neck, forms a joint Crest – prominent ridge or projection, for attachment of connective tissues Epicondyle – projection above a condyle, for attachment of connective tissues Line – long, narrow ridge (less prominent than a crest), for attachment of connective tissues Spinous process – sharp, slender projection, for attachment of connective tissues Trochanter – process of the femur, for attachment of connective tissues Tubercle – process of the humerus, for attachment of connective tissues Tuberosity – roughening on a bone surface, for attachment of connective tissues
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Skeletal system includes Axial division Skull and associated bones Auditory ossicles Hyoid bones Vertebral column Thoracic cage Ribs & sternum Appendicular division -Pectoral girdle -Pelvic girdle
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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: AXIAL DIVISION Part A
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The Axial Skeleton Axial division Skull and associated bones Auditory ossicles Hyoid bone Vertebral column Thoracic cage Ribs & Sternum
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The Skull and Associated Bones
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The Adult Skull skull = 22 bones cranium = 8 bones: 1 frontal, 1 occipital, 2 temporals, 2 parietals, 1 sphenoid and 1 ethmoid facial bones = 14 bones: 2 nasals, 2 maxillae, 2 zygomatics ,1 mandible, 2 lacrimals, 2 palatines, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 vomer mandible and auditory ossicles are the only movable skull bones
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The Adult Skull skull is made up of several cavities 1. cranial cavity 2.
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