Lecture 8: "the institutions of your country are no your piece-work, and the only thing you have got to do, is, to mind your piece-work" (Dickens, p.110)oPiece-work: doing a job for a set price; a form of wage labour but you get paid per piece rather than per priceoYou have no say in how they run/design the institutions as you are not getting paid for itoSmith's view is you have to look at the city to find capitalismSmall needs/wants are driven by larger needs/wants and you can find the large needs/wants in the cityan exchange based viewoWood's responseYou have to look at the country side to find capitalismCapitalism is about relations of production“They [politicians] represent property– and we have none. They represent rank– we have none. Vested interests– we have none. Large capitals– those are just what crush us…They are chosen by the few, they represent the few, and they make laws for the many– and yet you don’t know whether or not the people are represented!” (Charles Kingsley, Alton Locke(1850), quoted in Graham Law, ed. Hard Times, p. 447).A Note on Reading 'Creative' TextsoSocial scientific vs. creative readings: Need a different ‘reading strategy’, a ‘levels of reading analysis’ approach (outlined by Shea and Whitla, pp. 91-104)oDickens and Sinclair present images with real historical content: industrial life and ‘modernity’ in 19thC England and early 20thC AmericaoUsing ‘Fiction’ to represent the ‘dominant ideology’ and present a ‘counter-ideology’ (Marchak): Dickens and Sinclair as social critics who possess the ‘sociological imagination’oAn imaginary representation of the lived experience of individuals– can we empathize with them? Can we see the ‘social structure’ of that society through their eyes?oSee if you can look through the eyes of the characters for the storyCharles Dickens (1812-1870)oProlific English novelist of the Victorian EraoMost famous works include The Adventures of Oliver Twist (1839) A Christmas Carol (1843) David Copperfield (1850) Great Expectations (1861)oHard Times (1854) published in weekly instalmentsIts tells us a way of how literature was accessible to people during those timesoAdvocated social reform against the horrors of industrialization and the indifference of politicians and wealthy1Reading for the Literal (what's the story about?)oWhat is the story literally about?oWhat goes on these particular chapters (for Dicken's work)What happens to these charactersoFour levels of interpretation: literal, formal and expository and ANALYTICAL (leaving out ‘comparative’oWhat are we reading about?