Lecture 8 - Lecture 8 1\"the institutions of your country are no your piece-work and the only thing you have got to do is to mind your piece-work(Dickens

Lecture 8 - Lecture 8 1"the institutions of your country...

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Lecture 8: "the institutions of your country are no your piece-work, and the only thing you have got to do, is, to mind your piece-work" (Dickens, p.110) o Piece-work: doing a job for a set price; a form of wage labour but you get paid per piece rather than per price o You have no say in how they run/design the institutions as you are not getting paid for it o Smith's view is you have to look at the city to find capitalism Small needs/wants are driven by larger needs/wants and you can find the large needs/wants in the city an exchange based view o Wood's response You have to look at the country side to find capitalism Capitalism is about relations of production “They [politicians] represent property– and we have none. They represent rank– we have none. Vested interests– we have none. Large capitals– those are just what crush us…They are chosen by the few, they represent the few, and they make laws for the many– and yet you don’t know whether or not the people are represented!” (Charles Kingsley, Alton Locke (1850), quoted in Graham Law, ed. Hard Times , p. 447). A Note on Reading 'Creative' Texts o Social scientific vs. creative readings: Need a different ‘reading strategy’, a ‘levels of reading analysis’ approach (outlined by Shea and Whitla, pp. 91-104) o Dickens and Sinclair present images with real historical content: industrial life and ‘modernity’ in 19 th C England and early 20 th C America o Using ‘Fiction’ to represent the ‘dominant ideology’ and present a ‘counter-ideology’ (Marchak): Dickens and Sinclair as social critics who possess the ‘sociological imagination’ o An imaginary representation of the lived experience of individuals– can we empathize with them? Can we see the ‘social structure’ of that society through their eyes? o See if you can look through the eyes of the characters for the story Charles Dickens (1812-1870) o Prolific English novelist of the Victorian Era o Most famous works include The Adventures of Oliver Twist (1839) A Christmas Carol (1843) David Copperfield (1850) Great Expectations (1861) o Hard Times (1854) published in weekly instalments Its tells us a way of how literature was accessible to people during those times o Advocated social reform against the horrors of industrialization and the indifference of politicians and wealthy 1 Reading for the Literal (what's the story about?) o What is the story literally about? o What goes on these particular chapters (for Dicken's work) What happens to these characters o Four levels of interpretation: literal, formal and expository and ANALYTICAL (leaving out ‘comparative’ o What are we reading about?

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