Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System

Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System - Chapter 6 The Skeletal...

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Chapter 6 - The Skeletal System 15-Nov-16 11:24 AM 1. Describe the main functions of bones. 1. functions of the skeletal system 1. Support: structural framework 2. Protection: protects internal organs (ribs; skull) 3. assistance in movement: skeletal muscles attach to bones to allow for movement 4. mineral homeostasis (storage and release): bone tissue is 18% of weight of human body; 1. Stores calcium and phosphorus 2 blood cell production: connective tissue ( red bone marrow ) produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platlets thru hemopoiesis. Thru aging, red bone marrow changes to yellow. Red bone marrow is present in fetus and some adult bones (hips, ribs, sternum, ends of humerous and femur) 3 triglyceride storage: yellow bone marrow consists primarily of adipose cells 2 Identify the parts of a long bone. 1 structure of a long bone: (longer than it is wide) 1 Diaphysis (shaft): the long, cylindrical component 2 epiphysis (plural is epiphyses): proximal and distal ends 3 metaphysis (plural is metaphyses): regions between diaphysis and epiphysis, contains an epiphyseal growth plate , that is a layer of hyaline cartilage that permits growth ; once growth is complete, ephphyseal plate becomes line , as it is replaced by bone 4 articular cartilage: thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers epiphysis where bone connects with another bone 5 Periosteum: tough connective tissue that surrounds bone surface that is not covered by articular carilage
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1. outer fibrous layer: dense, irregular connective tissue 2. inner osteogenic layer: cells; allow it to grow in thickness, but not length 3. perforating fibers or Sharpey’s fibers: thick bundles of collagen that extend from the periosteum into the bone extracellular matrix 2 medullary cavity or marrow cavity: hollow, sylindrical space within diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow and blood vessels; design allows for minimum weight 3 Endosteum: thin membrane lines the medullar cavity; contains single layer of bone-forming cells and a small amount of connective tissue 2 Describe the histological features of bone tissue. 1 histology of bone tissue: extracellular matrix: 15% water; 30% collagen fibers; 55% crystalized mineral salts 2 bone or osseous tissue 1 Hydroxyapatite: calcium phosphate combined with calcium hydroxide 2 Calcification: mineral salts are deposited in framework formed by collagen gibers of extracellular matrix 1. Hardness depends on presence of mineral salts; flexibility depends on it's collagen fibers 2 osteogenic cell: 1. osteoprogenitor cells: unspecialized bone stem cells (derived from mesenchymal); undergo cell division, found in innner portion of peristeum, endosteum, , within canals that contain blood vessels 2. Osteoblast: bone building cells; as they become trapped, they become osteocytes (blast cell that secretes extracellular matrix) 3.
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