Chapter 7 - The Axial Skeleton

Chapter 7 - The Axial Skeleton - Chapter 7 The Axial...

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Chapter 7 - The Axial Skeleton 15-Nov-16 11:37 AM 1. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular divisions of the skeleton. 1. axial skeleton: bones that lie around longitudinal axis of human body (dips/ skull): 80 bones 2. appendicular skeleton: upper and lower limbs and the bones that form the related girdles: 126 bones 2 Classify bones on the basis of shape and location. 1. types of bones 1. long bone 1. Primarily compact bone tissue in diaphyses 2. spongy bone tissue in their epiphese 2 short bone: somewhat cube shaped; similar length and width 3 flat bone: thin and composed of parallel plates of enclosing bone tiesue; afford protection and provide areas for muscle attachment: such as sternum and skull, and scapulea 4 irregular bone: complex shapes 5 sesamoid bone: shaped like a sesame seed; develop in tendons there is friction and tension and stress; typically small other than the patellae 6 sutural bone: classified by location, not shape: small bones located in sutures (joints) between cranial bones; number varies person to perosn 2 Red bone marrow is restricted to flat bones; irregullar bones (vertabrea), long bones, and some short bones 2 Describe the major surface markings on bones and the brief functions of each (no examples). 1 Surface markings: structural features adapted for functional reasons: 1 depressions and openings: allows passage of soft tissues, forms thru compressive forces 2 Processes: projections or outgrowths that form attachment pointss for connective tissues 2 bone surface markings, Table 7.2: 1 Fissure: narrow slit between adjecent parts of bones 2 Foramen: opening thru which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass 3 Fossa: shallow depression 4 Sulcus: furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve, or tendon 5 Meatus: tubelike opining 6 Projections 1. Condyle: large round protuberance with smooth articular surface at end of bone 2. Facet: smooth, flat, articular surface 3. Head: usually roundered articular projection supported on neck of bone 4. Crest: prominent ridge or elongated projection 5. Epicondyle: roughened projection above condile 6. Line: long, narrow ridge or border (less prominent than crest) 7. spinous process: sharp, slender projection 8. Trochanter: very large projection 9. Tubercle: rounded projection 10. Tuberosity: projection with rough, bumpy surface 2 Identify the names, locations and the listed surface markings of the bones of the skull.
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1 skull (details in the Exhibits) 1 cranial bones 1. frontal bone: frontal squama: scalelike plate of bone that forms forehead of skull 1. supraorbital margin: thickening of the frontal bone 2. Foramina: hole in the supraorbital margin a. Notch: if the foramen is incomplete b. frontal sinuses: lie deep to frontal squama 2 parietal bones (2) 1 Many protrusions and depressions that accommodate blood vessels supplying dura mater 2 One parietal on each side 2 temporal bones (2) 1 Zygomatic process: projects from inferior portion of temporal squama; joins with temporal pocess of zygmotic bone to for the zygmotic arch 2
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