Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 13-Nov-16 9:16 AM Pre-reading of...

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Chapter 4 13-Nov-16 9:16 AM Pre-reading of Chapter 4: 1. Define the term tissue , and classify the tissues of the body into four major types. 1. tissue 2. histology 1. epithelial tissue: covers body surfaces; lines hollow organs, body cavities, forms ducts 2. connective tissue: protects and supports body together' cam store energy reserves as fat, help provide immunity 3. muscular tissue: composed of cells for contraction; force generation 4. nervous tissue 2 Describe the structure and functions of the five principal types of cell junctions. 1 cell junction: most epithelia cells; some muscle and nerve cells are helf together into functional units 1. tight junction: weblike strands of transmembrane proteins ; seal off passage ways; line the stomach, intestines; urinary bladder 2. adherens junction: contain plaqye; dense layer of proteins on inside of plasma membrane that attaches to membrane protein and to microfilaments of cytoskeleton 1. Transmembrane glycoproteins: cadherin ; insert into plaque, connect to cadherins of adjacent cell 2. In epithelial cells; form adhesion belts 2 Desmosome: contain plaque and transmembrane proteins (caherins), but do not attach to microfilaments' desmosome plaque attaches 1. Spot weld-like junctions common in epidermis; cardiac mucle celsl; prevent cells from separating under tension 2 Hemidesmosome: do not link adjecent cells; transmembrane protines are integrins, which attach to intermediate filaments of kerain, which attach to basement membrane 3 gap junction: membrane proteins called connexins form fluid filled tunnels; connect cells 1. Allow ions and small molecules pass togher 2. Takes place in avasccular tiusses such as lens and cornea of eye 3. Also allows communiication 2 Epithelia and Connective Tissues: 1 Epithelial cells are tightly connected; no blood vessels; thus always adjecent to bloodvessl rich connective tiussue 2 Connective cells have large amount of extracellular materails; highly vascularized 2 Describe the general features of epithelial tissue. 1 epithelial tissue or epithelium: cells in continuous sheets; sing or multiple layers; minimal extracellular space because they are held together by cell junctions 1 surfaces: apical: free surface; faces the body surfacel contains vilia or microvilli 1. Lateral: face adjecent cells on either side; may contain tight junctions, adherens junction, desmosoms, and or gap junctions
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2. Basal; opposeit of apical; connects to extracellular layer, such as basement membrane, will contain hemidemosomes 2 basement membrane : 1 Thin, extracellular layer composed of basal lamina (closer to and screted by epithelia cells) 2 And reticular lamina: closer to underlying connective tissue; contains proteins such as fibroblasts 3 Basement membranes will attach and support epithelial tissue, form a surface on which epithelial cells migrate during growth or wound healing; prevent passage of larger molecules, such as filtration in the kidney 2 covering and lining epithelium: outer covering of skin and internal organs, and
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