Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 10-Nov-16 10:50 AM Objectives After...

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Chapter 1 10-Nov-16 10:50 AM Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to 1. define the terms anatomy and physiology . 1. Anatomy: science of structures and relationships among them 1. Branches of anatomy: 1. Histology: microscopic structure of tissues 2. Developmental biology: complete development of an individual from inception (fertilization) to death 3. Embryology: first 8 weeks of development after fertilization of human egg 4. Systemic anatomy: structures of specific systems, such as nervous or respiratory system 5. Surface anatomy: surface markings of the body, to understand internal anatomy thru visualizations and palpatation 6. Regional anatomy: specific regions of the body, such as head or chest 7. Pathological anatomy: structural changes associated with disease 2 Physiology: the science of body functions 2 define the following levels of structural organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system and organism. 1 Chemical: most basic level; comprises atoms and moelcules 2 Cellular: basic structural and functional units of an organism, composed of chemicals 1 For example nerve, muscle, epithelial cells 2 Tissue: groups of cells; materials surrounding them that work together to perform a function: 1 4 types: 1. Epithelial: covers body surfaces, lines organs, forms glands 2. Connective: connects and supports organs 3. Muscular: contracts to move body parts, generates heat 4. Nervous: carries information 2 Organ: different types of tissues are joined together, will have specific functions and usually recognizable shapes 3 System (or Organ system): related organs with common function, such as digestive system, comprised of moth, salivary glands, pharnx…
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4 Organismal: any living organism, composed of various systems 2 identify the 11 systems of the human body, list representative organs of each system, and describe the major functions of each system. 1 Integumentary system: 1 Skin, related structures like hair, nails, sweat and oil glands 2 Function: protects body, helps regulate temperature, eliminates some waste, detects sensation, stores fat 2 Skeletal System: 1 Bones, joints, and cartilage 2 Supports and protects body; provides surface for muscle attachment, houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and fats (got this wrong) ; aids movement 2 Muscular System: 1 Skeletal muscle tissue (usually attached to bone); smooth and cardiac muscle 2 Participates in movement, produces heat 2 Nervous System: 1 Brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs (eyes, ears) 2 Generates Action potentials to regulate activity, detects changes in body's int/ext environment, interprets changes and responds by causing muscular contractions/ glandular secretions 2 Endocrine system: 1 Hormone producing gland (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid gland, pancreases, ovaries, and testes); hormone producing cells in other tissues 2 Regulates body activities 2 Cardiovascular system 1 Blood, heart, blood vessels 2 Pump blood, which carries oxygen/nutrients and waste, to and from cells 2 Lymphatic system and Immunity 1
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