Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 10-Nov-16 10:05 PM Chapter 3 The...

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Chapter 3 10-Nov-16 10:05 PM Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization Chapter Overview: Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane: mosaic of proteins floating in lipid bilay Lipid bilayer: back-to-back: phospholiipids; cholesterol; glycolipids Peripehral proteins serve as enzymes and linkers; support plasma membrane; participate in mechancial activities Greater membane fluidity where there are more double bonds (unsaturation); cholestero decreases fluitiy; o Fluidity permits interaction in plasma membrane; permits layer to self-repair Glycoprotine with gglycolipids form glycocalyx on extracellular surface Bilayer more permeable to non-polar; uncharged molecules; impermeable to ions and polar/charged molecules other than water and urea Channel mediated facilitated diffusion Keywords and Topics Make certain that you can define, and use in context, each of the terms listed below, and that you understand the significance of each of the concepts. Define the term cell , and list the three major components of a cell. o cell o cell division o cell biology cytology o plasma membrane internal environment
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external environment o Cytoplasm: described according to flud mosaic model cytosol intracellular fluid: fluid portion of cytoplasm organelles nucleus Chromosomes - molecule of DNA associated with several proteins; contain genes genes Explain the structure and functions of the plasma membrane. o plasma membrane: Acts as barrier separating inside/outside of cell; inside and outside is different Controls flow into/out of cell Helps identify other cell to other cells Participates in intrercellular signaling fluid mosaic model: sea of fluid lipids that contain mosaic of different proteins lipid bilayer: back to back layer of phosopholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids; about 75 of membrane lipids are phospholipids Phospholipid: lipids that contain phosphorus Cholesterol: 20% ; steroid with attached hydroxyl group (OH) Glycolipid: 5%: lipids with attached carb groups; appear only in membrane that faces the extracellular fluid Amphipathic: polar and non-polar regions Hydrophilic: phospholid head Hydrophobic: two fatty acid tails (non- polar) Cholesterol is weakly amphipathic ; tiny OH group is polar region; forms hydrogen bonds w/ polar head of phospholids and glycolipidss membrane proteins integral protein: extend into or thru lipid bilayer; most are transmembrante protines
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transmembrane proteins: span entire length of lupid bilayer; sometimes attached tightly to one side by covalently bonding to fatty acids peripheral protein: attached to polar heads of membrane lupids or to integral proteins Glycoprotein: proteins with carbohydrate groups attached to extracellular end. The carbohydrates are oligosaccharides (chains of 2-60 monosaccharides) Glycocalyx: sugary coat formed by glycolipids and glycoproteins; the pattern varies from one molecule to antoerh;
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