SBReadResourceServlet

SBReadResourceServlet - Human-Centered Computing Editor...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Editor Blurb Editor Blurb continued Email address MAY/JUNE 2003 1094-7167/03/$17.00 © 2003 IEEE 81 Published by the IEEE Computer Society Human-Centered Computing of any cognitive systems engineering methodology will be incomplete unless they include a description of the cogni- tion that is needed to accomplish the work. The concept of macrocognition is a way of describing cognitive work as it naturally occurs. Definition Macrocognition is a term coined by Pietro Cacciabue and Erik Hollnagel to indicate a level of description of the cognitive functions that are performed in natural (versus artificial laboratory) decision-making settings. 1,2 Traditionally, cognitive researchers have conducted lab experiments on topics such as puzzle solving, serial ver- sus parallel attentional mechanisms, and other standard laboratory paradigms for psychological research. We term these microcognition because they are aimed at investigat- ing the building blocks of cognition, the processes that we believe are invariant and serve as the basis for all kinds of thinking and perceiving. In contrast, the methodology for macrocognition focuses on the world outside the lab. This includes contexts designated by such terms as the “field setting,” the “natural laboratory,” and the “real world.” 3 Key features of cognition in naturalistic contexts include the following: • Decisions are typically complex, often involving data overload. • Decisions are often made under time pressure and involve high stakes and high risk. • Research participants are domain practitioners rather than college students. • Goals are sometimes ill-defined, and multiple goals often conflict. • Decisions must be made under conditions in which few things can be controlled or manipulated; indeed, many key variables and their interactions are not even fully understood. In natural settings, domain practitioners rarely focus on microcognitive processes. Instead, they are concerned with macrocognitive phenomena, as Table 1 shows. These types of functions—detecting problems, manag- ing uncertainty, and so forth—are not usually studied in laboratory settings. To some extent, they are emergent phenomena. In addition to describing these types of phe- nomena (the left-hand column) on a macrocognitive level, we can also describe them on a microcognitive level. The two types of description are complementary. Each serves its own purpose, and together they might provide a broader and more comprehensive view than either by itself. We do not suggest that the investigation of macrocog- nitive phenomena will supercede or diminish the impor- tance of microcognition work—just that we need research to better understand macrocognitive functions in order to improve cognitive engineering.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 5

SBReadResourceServlet - Human-Centered Computing Editor...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online