abstract flfl - abstract not concrete difficult to...

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abstract not concrete; difficult to understand ambiguous obscure; no definite meaning auditory having to do with hearing chronemics nonverbal communication that involves time disfluences pauses such as "ah" or "hmmm" haptics nonverbal behavior that involves touching linguistics the systematic study of language monochronistic tending to schedule only one activity at a tim morphology study of words and their structure paralanguage vocal nonverbal language phonology study of sounds polychronistic tending to schedule several activities at the sa pragmatics the branch of linguistics that studies languag language structure proxemics nonverbal communication that involves spac semantics the branch of linguistics that studies the mean spatial having to do with space symbol something that represents something else syntax grammatical arrangement of words and phras Vocab Arcade What is language and how do we use it to communicate effectively? Language systems. You read in the first lesson that language is a "highly complex system of vocal sounds . . . used to question, to command, and to define and describe. Language is not the whole of communication, but it's certainly at the core. All languages are driven by systems of rules or patterns that control how each language should be
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used. Every language has a system of sounds ( phonology ) that join together to form words and word parts ( morphology ). These in turn unite to form phrases and sentences ( syntax ). Together, they produce meaning ( semantics ) which—when operating in specific situations influenced by place, time, and culture ( pragmatics )— serves as the basis for most of our communication. Language characteristics. While all languages use the same set of systems, those systems are used in different ways. This fact helps in explaining why native speakers of German will not understand French unless they take the time to learn it. The conventions of each language are what make each language distinct. Even among speakers of the same language, conventions are often not enough to ensure clear communication. This is because language is ambiguous —words often mean more than one thing, requiring people to clearly define their terms to avoid misunderstandings. Dictionaries help, but only careful, responsible use of language can keep the problem from worsening. Types of language. Just like a person dresses differently for working in a garden versus attending a wedding in that same garden, a speaker's purpose, setting, and audience influence how he or she uses language. Three types of language are generally sufficient to cover most communication situations. They are: formal language—typically the "standard" language learned in school; used in public and work-related settings; serves to allow people from different regions or cultural backgrounds to communicate effectively; informal language—highly diverse language used at home, among friends, and in other informal settings; includes regional and social dialects and slang;
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