Study Guide #1

Study Guide #1 - Ch. 1 - Studying the Person Gossip: casual...

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Ch. 1 - Studying the Person Gossip: casual talk, esp about others Frequency: 65% of conversation is gossip Functions ; - Keeps track of who’s doing what - Forms alliances - Ability to brag - Condemn slackers - Negatively correlated w/concern w/social desirability Gossip Tendency Questionnaire : higher the score, more of a gossiper Personality traits as predictors of mortality, divorce, job performance: - Conscientious ppl take care of themselves live longer - Also perform better at work - Neuroticism makes it harder to live with others higher divorce rates Personality psychology defined : scientific study of the whole person OR scientific talk about ppl Unit of analysis: the person - How we’re alike - How we’re different - Ways in which we’re unique individuality McAdams’ model: Human Nature : Evolution + Socialization Evolution: human nature, approach to mating, Hogan’s socioanalytic theory, attachment Parenting, evolution, social learning are all foundational McAdams’ 3 levels: 1) Traits – what you have (sincere, outgoing, open, etc); person from the outside 2) Characteristic adaptations – what you make of what you have and where you are; person from the inside; stereotypes Affective adaptations goals, motives Social-cognitive adaptations constructs, schemas Developmental adaptations self, identity 3) Integrative stories – the story you tell, or is told about you (NOTES WORK!) Research: 1. Unsystematic observation (induction) 2. Theory building 3. Evaluating the theory doing the actual research Induction: what you observe (the things about your roommate) Theory: a set of interrelated statements made to explain observations A Theory provides : models: terminology, rules for operation, hypotheses (should these be looked up?) Standards of a scientific theory: - Comprehensiveness - Parsimony (simple as possible) - Coherence - Testability - Empirical validity - Usefulness - Generativity
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A measure has to be reliable before it can be valid Validity: - Construct: what you are studying really exists; highest form of validity - Content: refers to tests; measures completely what it claims to measure and nothing else - Criterion: test compares well w/other and similar tests; good predictive power Reliability: - test-retest: similar results on same test or measure when applied at a later date - inter-rater: 2 or more observers see a particular behavior in the same way (see pp. 127-132, and Table 4.4) Data collection: - self reports (questionnaires, clinical interviews, ESM) Projective tests: Roschach and TAT; unconscious self presentation Naturalistic and semi-naturalistic observations: attachment @ playground, Strange Situation BIDR: Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Self deception: any positively biased response that the respondent really thinks is true - holding 2 views of yourself - unconsciously blocking one view - you’re left with a positive view of yourself impression management: consciously choosing answers on purpose to create a favorable
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2008 for the course PS 251 taught by Professor Ely during the Spring '08 term at BU.

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Study Guide #1 - Ch. 1 - Studying the Person Gossip: casual...

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