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Psyc112M F01 Midterm Exam 2

Psyc112M F01 Midterm Exam 2 - Psychology 112M — Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 112M — Fall Quarter, 2001 Mid-Term Exam #2 Instructions: This exam consists of 20 multiple choice questions, each counting 3 points out of the total of 100, and 9 short-answer questions, which range in value from 3 to 6 points. The multiple-choice questions are listed first, followed by the short-answer questions. Before starting the exam, please be sure to enter your name in the space below and on the front of your Scantron form. Also, enter the form identifier of this test packet, Form B, in the area labeled Form at the top on the Scantron form. You do not need to enter any other identification information on the Scantron form. Finally, fill in your ID# below, on the top of each page in this packet, and on both sides of the Scantron form. Answer the multiple-choice questions by marking the appropriate box on the back of on your Scantron form. Write your answers to the short-answer questions in the space pr0vided in this packet. If your answer for a short-answer question is longer than will fit in the space available, please continue it on the back of the page on which it is written because the pages will be separated for grading. You do NOT need to answer the short answer questions in complete sentences. Although your answer needs to say enough so that we can see you understand the material, keep in mind that, when grading your answers, we will deduct points for irrelevant or repetitive material. When you are done: Check to be sure that your ID number is on all pages of this packet and on both sides of the Scantron form. Also check that your name is written only on this front page and on the Scantron form. Turn in both this packet and your Scantron form. Name: 7 _ I Lab Section: “if; n i i. go Student ID Number: _ 7 I DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL INSTRUCTED Except to write yOur ID number on the top right corner of each page. l. The characteristics of the participants tested in an experiment are called individual differences. Individual differences among participants can be controlled in an experiment by A. ignoring the individual differences because they cannot confound the experiment B. eliminating the individual differences from the experiment <:> balancing the individual differences across the groups of the experiment D. holding the individual differences constant in the experiment 2. Which of the following represents a way to translate research questions into a form that will allow a researcher to locate a specific source of systematic variation in an experiment? A. variation contrasts analytical comparisons C. isolation tests D. omnibus F—tests 3. Which of the following arises when the independent variable of interest and a potential independent variable are allowed to covary? é) confounding B. decrease in external validity C. illusory correlation D. contamination effect 4. Which of the following is the most critical problem in drawing causal inferences based on the natural groups design? <§> eliminating plausible alternative causes for the obtained relationship 5. correlating participants' characteristics and their performance C. establishing covariation D. specifying the direction of the potential causal relationship 5. You have just completed an experiment using a randomized, independent groups design to test the hypothesis that increasing positive self image reduces aggression in high—school school students. Your experimental group spent five minutes each morning in an exercise thinking about the good things that they did the day before; the control groups spent the same time reviewing their schedule for the upcoming day. Aggressive behaviors were assessed using reports from teachers who were blind to the purposes of the experiment. Your experiment involved 400 subjects at University High School in Irvine, carefully controlled extraneous factors, and resulted in a large, statistically reliable result. Which of the following might create an important challenge to your hypothesis that increasing positive self image reduces aggressive behavior? A. The experiment lacks external validity because students at University High school are more affluent and have better academic preparation than most high school students. B. The experiment lack internal validity because subjects were drawn from only one school. C. Your operational definition of a manipulation to increase positive self—image may be incorrect. D. Teachers probably miss a good deal of aggressive behavior during the day. Page 1, v2 6- To be statistically significant, an F-ratio needs to be (E) a value large enough so that its probability under the null hypothesis is less than the level of significance B. any value greater than 1.00 C. any value less than 1.00 D. a value large enough so that its probability under the null hypothesis is greater than the level of significance 7. Complex designs enhance researchers' ability to test hypotheses derived from theories because complex designs make it possible to test both main effects and interactions B. require more specific operational definitions of concepts C. insure that the null hypothesis will be false D. have higher internal validity 8. A researcher did an experiment testing the effects of noise on students' ability to study effectively in different environments. There were three levels of background noise and two different environments so the design was a 3 X 2. The researcher obtained an interaction and decided to try to identify the source of the interaction by testing the effects of the noise variable separately at each level of the environment variable. In the analysis of this complex designr which of the following types of effects was the researcher testing? A. main effect moderator effect C. analytical comparison simple main effect 9. A.researcher has read a research report indicating that a certain medication has been found to be effective when tested on men. The researcher plans to do an experiment testing the effectiveness of the same medication but in his experiment both men and women will be tested. The researcher is planning to do a A. partial replication of the experiment to test the statistical power of the original experiment B. replication of the experiment to test the internal validity of the original experiment C. replication of the experiment to test the sensitivity of the _ original experiment partial replication of the experiment to test the external validity of the finding of the original experiment 10. A researcher is doing an experiment with six conditions but each condition takes only a short amount of time to administer. The researcher has the opportunity, therefore, to administer many trials of each condition in the experiment. Which of the following techniques is likely to be most effective for balancing practice effects? A. stratified randomization 8. all possible orders of conditions C. ABBA counterbalancing block randomization Page 2, v2 11. If participants know they have been given alcohol, they may expect certain effects such as giddiness or relaxation. The general term for such cues that guide participants‘ behavior in a study is A. directing effects B. expectation effects c. self-preoccupation characteristics (5:) demand characteristics 12. One major purpose of conducting experiments is to decide whether a treatment or program effectively changes behavior. The second major purpose for doing experiments is to provide A. simple and relatively quick ways of testing and revising hypotheses an empirical test of hypotheses derived from theories C. definitive answers to theoretical questions D. methods to obtain results that demonstrate that what we expect from our hypothesis will be confirmed 13. When researchers are trying to increase the power of the statistical analyses they will use to analyze the results of their experiments they have the most control over? A. the effects of individual differences on practice effects in the , experiment (g) the sample size in the experiment C. the size of the treatment effect in the experiment D. the amount of error variation in the experiment 14. A researcher is studying the effects of caffeine on memory. The researcher plans to use a placebo control and a low and a high dose of caffeine. The dependent variable will be the amount the participant can remember from a brief paragraph. Which of the following is the best way for the researcher to do this experiment using an incomplete repeated measures design? A. hold the paragraph that the participants study constant by using the same paragraph for all three conditions (i.e., paragraph A with placebo, low caffeine, & high caffeine) B. use three different paragraphs and assign one paragraph to be used with a particular condition (i.e., paragraph A with placebo, B with / low caffeine, C with high caffeine) C. use three different paragraphs and balance the paragraphs across conditions {i.e., paragraphs A, B, & C are assigned to the placebo, low caffeine, and high caffeine conditions in different combinations for each subject) D. use as many different paragraphs as there are participants but use the same paragraph for all three conditions for a given participant (i.e., the first participant would have paragraph A for all three conditions; the second would have paragraph B for all three conditions, and so on) Page 3, v2 15. In the incomplete repeated measures design the levels of the independent variable for each participant are perfectly confounded with the A. characteristics of the experimental task B. individual differences variables in the experiment {3) order in which the levels were presented characteristics of that particular participant 16. In a clinical trial involving a double—blind placebo control design a diet drug was shown to result in a statistically significant amount of weight loss. The sample size in this study was very large. The effect size reported for the drug was small (d = .10). Which of the following best describes the outcome of this clinical trial? A. the drug had a reliable effect that will likely lead to a large weight loss for people who use it B. the drug did not have a reliable effect but it would still likely lead to a large weight loss for people who use it C. the drug did not have a reliable effect and it would lead to a small . weight loss for people who use it (:fi) the drug had a reliable effect that will likely lead to a small weight loss for people who use it Page 4, v2 filhp G i"" t} f} Instructions for Questions 17-20: For each of the four questions below, enter on your Scantron form the letter identifying the data set that is described in the question. 0 17. The data with no Main Effect of A, no Main Effect of B, and an Interaction. D by“ The data with no Main Effect of A, a Main’Effect of B, and an Interaction. A Q, 19. The data with a Main Effect of A, a Main Effect of B, and no Interaction. 5.. Q) 20. The data with no Main Effect of A, a Main Effect of B, and no Interaction. (,2 "M Page 5 Psychology 112M Mid-Term Student ID# _ Questions 21-24 are based on the following scenario. For a research methods class, a student performed a social psychology experiment to test the hypothesis that a person would be more likely to comply with a request to do someone a favor if that person had complied with a previous request than if he or she was responding to a first request. (The experimenter was also concerned that sex of the subject might influence the choice to comply with a request for help, but this is not central to the hypothesis she is testing.) The experiment included two groups containing 50 undergraduates each, recruited from an introductory psychology subject pool and randomly assigned to the groups. In the single-request group, when the subjects arrived they were not asked to give informed consent (by special arrangement with the local IRB). Instead, they immediately were given a problem-solving task that lasted about 30 minutes and which they were led to believe was the experiment. When the subject had finished, the experimenter came in and announced that the experiment was over. The experimenter then picked up an armfirl of books (always the same) from a bookshelf in the waiting room and asked the participant if, on the way out, he or she would be willing to help by carrying an armful of books to a storage room down the hall. After the subject left, the experimenter recorded the sex of the subject, whether he or she complied with the request to carry books, and the total books carried. The experimenter then replaced all of the books back on the original bookshelf. When subjects in the double-request group, arrived they were first given a description of the problem solving experiment and asked if they would be willing to participate. Those subjects who did not agree to participate were allowed to leave and given credit for participating in an experiment. Those subjects who agreed to participate then did the problem-solving task. When they had completed the problem-solving task, the experimenter came in and the real experiment continued just as described above for the single-request group. Based on the hypothesis, the student expected that subjects in the double-request condition would be more likely to agree to carry books and would, if they carried, books carry more books than the subjects in the single- request condition. ' The table below summarizes the results from this experiment. Subjects , Subjects Who Did Subjects Who Declining NOT Carry Books Carried Books aw... Single . 0 Double 0 0 To assess these results, the experimenter did a x2 and found that the percentage of single— versus double-request subjects who carried books did not differ significantly. However, when the experimenter compared the number of books carried by the subjects who carried books in each condition, the difference of 1.7 books was highly significant [t(88) = 6.78, p < .001]. Based on this result the student concluded that the hypothesis was partially continued. Page 6 Psychology 112M Mid-Term Student ID# _ 21. [4 Points] Describe this research. What research design was used and what were the independent and dependent vanables? A rha‘lChe-Cl Group dgy/ n [5‘ used The. {ndCfflfi denf’ yanab/g wax w}; cf/“hfl’ 61:“ " l77L 6‘ rub/each“ war afkf d f? dc i I’m sir-J}- inf/6 sf: prob/cm fa/vmrjv 77v dEIJf‘J‘ZdGWI’ Vail-Q12!!! Lani whffitr by“ 1451;“ a quJ'ecf Clfi'1'64 Aooir whtn WA!“ A? 22. [4 Points] m, H" What steps did the experimenter take in this research to make causal inferences possible? r7311 Cx’pcnmurtfr aridon-wly (113/de fwd/D; "/77 N’U‘u/‘f "fl/11f (”flaw-“(f ri‘ffl'iPfi‘U (MM/4’ L r I474 50.3 was. wrd 40M ”pa/e and [Farm/C- ,,» JH‘ 23. [4 Points] Analyze this experiment for a flaw, which reduces the internal validity. If you find a flaw, describe it and the plausible alternative hypothesis it allows. If you do not thifl that there is a flaw, then say that; do not just leave the answer blank. bThi‘f/Vn bl Val/191173] weduced swab,” +14 yoiyurlmr‘l'lh tau-U d, a win .93”, Ml} new feel 0 F M dergff, 7/440 int/alt“ flute 0th a {ff-r‘j-mf'zvf ”it a a") n '51 3,- 111 -/ #141 ,9? f has fan/+1 cedar yield}, 03" J':.,e"a¢:/ewr-§J did my?" Carry bob/4.1“ Mracuc 45F Thar a}? greats/“:2. 77H? {rig/n; d5: {If d! fizéfli‘i‘z'ira Vdi‘ r 6:. L {I W’é’k] ("it if? M n d 'f it! at" 5’35 eff-715” Page 7 Psychology 112M Mid-Term Student ID# 24. [4 points] Ignoring any flaw that you may have described in your answer to the previous question, do you feel that the analyses described justify the student's conclusion? Why or why not? No / £71966! our +L¢ ram It!" Mr“! no}- J‘lfl/‘U‘fi'ca/ly Awful/951.214? H’C me}: have jo‘htrl d! ffirvnf (m {T prrwf 1 fl flu (“X/)0 , ”1.17:"? f” UVQf (SI/("3L5 By 11 d! {/erfi-rir jfiOM/w 015' 3 In: til-“(1 0?" Fr! are «1’ Ema: first? 6’ Note: The followin uestions are NOT based on the scenario recedin uestion 21. 25. [4 points] Extraneous variables in an experiment can be controlled by balancing them or holding them constant. What effects do these approaches have on the sensitivity and external validity of an experiment? th’i“ \rx'fiflm'cw; (fluctblr; are (ppfrgn'ud LY holdlns‘ikfim Constanl ~Hmc Sensii—‘rvit'y snrrraqrj/ and "it’d {Krf'nal Validdy decreases, / 4 Whom -+lms Variapr; ar{ Conh‘olbi Ly ba‘ahClh-g 4'me +lf11 Cné’hSli’lVll‘Y a“; tin; (‘Apflrinarnf OLQ(YC0L-5-€5’ GY‘CL 4411 s. I Cx‘ter'ha/ Va ‘1' ah+y increases 26. [6 points] Identify and briefly define the three primary types of control that are used in experiments. manipul 0+}. Ohl. Changlnj 4"?! IthP-Phdelfl‘r Vfitfl ables. +3 I @ Ste i-F “Hm; PsdeJH or: (“p-QC? on ‘H’V’ Duel-come, Cth‘l‘ah‘i-li mala'inj Sufl- ~Hoai’ 5"“) _"HU OM independcrfi VOVEQLU is: adJuS‘Hd anohfll‘ "*“t'ln‘ir "Patton-3" are ~an saw etc-DU f'bndi‘hhfl}; @a‘ancinjfi ". “‘4?“ #19“? a}: (thl‘HbHI (Rm #1. Lula ! 57.”.le +m+ variablu ole ubi' dtf'F'CV (UVI‘E'lflfi‘f’, anal“ Page8 ac r05: 5 vs u P5 Psychology 112M Mid-Tenn Student ID# _ - A I 27. [4 points] Describe and contrast the methods and goals involved in random selection and random assignment. Random Seled'lpn (5 down Prior +5 in-aplenunrhv "it“ iwd7‘-t‘€’rx‘-aimt {grrflkifi +0 maid sure Jrlnai all Subjects lath/O 0m {ii/(51' Opyby—fun‘.+7 “in Var-fig] Pa‘l’fif Q a if] d ow axis. in W. ,-- ya 1-; Winn" mega-s a re % randomly Flared in le‘er’cni” candid—Ions“ OF H“ i'idPFf’wdCJr’l'i' Vowablfi wow pulfihzh £6 mL'Wi’ -Hr2fl.+ (7:1 ufi/ I'm ilk/(ms Ff (”Mt £6 rm}. df 28. [4 points] Distinguish between a complete design and an incomplete design for repeated-measures designs. COMP/fife defiyrl 1'? Lu hm» {’61 CA 5 ML Jed» [a’flc’f’fi'ffi m f 61C”! (ofyd;f/'7&ii " r72; H 'a’f/vY’Wé‘dfiwr Jvfll’fd [I mam/,1“ 5' a {3; r»; 3 cvvm/ 794w; m Va. rmur 5y (/0 .r a- in“: [MIN arr/m1 IJI(T!;,-sdwoff 4/ fhca‘m/PIEM “In?“ I'V'LJZCW enrol. PHIL] err pas/750104.153: r12] mack (ijd/fii'fiyp ér’J/y .6th (73“! 0V6!” (MU-HG}? fli’vy parfi't‘l’pa‘fc In CQCA Cokrdzfi/‘M iJ‘ Vé/fgd ”MM litre/din’rr m . ,1 H r“: 29. [6 points] When we reject the null hypothesis after obtaining a statistically significant outcome, why can we never be certain the null hypothesis is, in fact, incorrect? Use an example to illustrate your answer. £2“ a um: a mam ”HY J‘Ijh/F'! (anf nectar»: M A} fro-f OCC ur tofu”! Vii/91’. («hm {‘15 ”Hm: . exPewmm-wf 771W}, If a ”a "”WrdT jflififu‘ (”’5 Mani“: flirt 1" an s; var we. / ha w - Mr I" r“ 5.1 c a my HQ; c H fCon- i! % Page 9 ...
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