Chapter 1 & genetics powerpoint notes - Chapter 1 and...

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Chapter 1 and genetics I. Perspectives on Disease and Health in Individuals A. Pathophysiology: the physiology of altered health 1. Cellular and organ changes that occur with disease and the effects of those changes on total body function 2. Focuses on the mechanisms of disease B. Adaptation 1. Ability of the body to adapt both physically and psychologically to the many stresses that occur in both health and disease a. Age b. Health status c. Psychosocial resources d. Speed at which adaptation has to occur C. Disease: any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a part, organ, or system of the body that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms D. Etiology: causes of disease (etiologic factors) 1. Biologic agents 2. Physical forces 3. Chemical agents 4. Nutritional excesses/deficits 5. Categories: Congenital – present at birth 6. or Acquired – after birth E. Pathogenesis 1. The sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact with an etiological agent until the expression of disease 2. Evolution of the disease process a. Atherosclerosis: etiology vs pathogenesis II. Homeostasis A. Condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment. B. There has to be a balance!! C. Caused by interplay of regulatory mechanisms. D. Anything that disturbs homeostasis leads to “ disease ”. III. The Cell Theory A. The Cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms B. The activity of an organism is dependent on both the individual and collective activities of its cells C. Cell actions are determined and made possible by specific subcellular structures. Cells come from cells. IV. Cell organization A. Nucleus: 1. Replication (DNA à DNA) 2. Transcription (DNA à RNA) B. Organelles: 1. Membrane & non-membrane with various functions C. Cell Membrane: 1. semi-permeable
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D. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. Protein Synthesis- ribosome lined (RER) 2. Lipid Synthesis/detox (SER) A. Golgi Complex: 1. Modifies, sorts, packages proteins B. Mitochondrion: 1. location of 2 of 3 steps of cell respiration 2
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2. Lysosome: a. digestion of “biodegradeble” trash 3. Peroxisome: a. handles “toxic” waste 1) Ex) controls free radicals II. Cytoskeleton A. cell shape and movement B. microtubules: 1. internal framework 2. cilia and flagella 3. spindle fibers C. microfilaments: 1.
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